3D-printed porous functional composite scaffolds with polydopamine decoration for bone regeneration

Regenerative Biomaterials 2023 Volume 10, Article rbad062

Large size bone defects affect human health and remain a worldwide health problem that needs to be solved immediately. 3D printing technology has attracted substantial attention for preparing penetrable multifunctional scaffolds to promote bone reconditioning and regeneration. Inspired by the spongy structure of natural bone, novel porous degradable scaffolds have been printed using polymerization of lactide and caprolactone (PLCL) and bioactive glass 45S5 (BG), and polydopamine (PDA) was used to decorate the PLCL/BG scaffolds. The physicochemical properties of the PLCL/BG and PLCL/BG/PDA scaffolds were measured, and their osteogenic and angiogenic effects were characterized through a series of experiments both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that the PLCL/BG2/PDA scaffold possessed a good compression modulus and brilliant hydrophilicity. The proliferation, adhesion and osteogenesis of hBMSCs were improved in the PDA coating groups, which exhibited the best performance. The results of the SD rat cranium defect model indicate that PLCL/BG2/PDA obviously promoted osteointegration, which was further confirmed through immunohistochemical staining. Therefore, PDA decoration and the sustained release of bioactive ions (Ca, Si, P) from BG in the 3D-printed PLCL/BG2/PDA scaffold could improve surface bioactivity and promote better osteogenesis and angiogenesis, which may provide a valuable basis for customized implants in extensive bone defect repair applications.