3D printing of an integrated triphasic MBG-alginate scaffold with enhanced interface bonding for hard tissue applications
Osteochondral defects affect both of cartilage and subchondral areas, thus it poses a significant challenge to simultaneously regenerate two parts in orthopedics. Tissue engineering strategy is currently regarded as the most promising way to repair osteochondral defects. This study focuses on developing a multilayered scaffold with enhanced interface bonding through 3D printing. One-shot printing process enables control over material composition, pore structure, and size in each region of the scaffold, while realizes seamlessly integrated construct as well. The scaffold was designed to be triphasic: a porous bone layer composed of alginate sodium (SA) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG), an intermediate dense layer also composed of SA and MBG and a cartilaginous layer composed of SA. The mechanical strength including the interface adhesion strength between layers were characterized. The results indicated that SA crosslinking after 3D printing anchored different materials together and integrated all regions. Additional scaffold soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture medium induced apatite deposition and had weakened the compressive and tensile strengths, while no layer dislocation or delamination occurred.