4D Printing Classroom in Modern Interactive Learning Environments

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 24, Article e00169

The emergence of four-dimensional (4D) printing and bioprinting in additive manufacturing (AM), which require knowledge of multi-physics, chemistry, and engineering skills, are bringing many engineering applications in biomedical devices, wearables, and robotics. This newly emerging technology has become a feasible commercial proposition because of lower costs, more design freedom, and more rapid production methods. This serves as a significant multidisciplinary research and training platform for both academia and the professional world. This work aims at enhancing researchers’ interest, knowledge, and skills in the emerging field of 4D printing and bioprinting. A greater knowledge of 4D printing and promotion of its practices enables students to pursue research and applications that 4D printing may offer. Therefore, a straightforward step-by-step approach, including design, metaphysics modeling principles, finite element method (FEM) simulation, and minimum facilities to replicate 4D bioprinting as part of an interdisciplinary unit in class, is presented in this study.