4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels
Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2015 Volume 36, Issue 12, Pages 1211–1217
A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the “dynamic” hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.