A powerful combination in designing polymeric scaffolds: 3D bioprinting and cryogelation

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies have great attention in different researching areas such as tissue engineering, medicine, etc. due to its maximum mimetic property of natural biomaterials by providing cell combination, growth factors, and other biomaterials. Bioprinting of tissues, organs, or drug delivery systems emerged layer-by-layer deposition of bioinks. 3D bioprinting technique has some complexity such as choice of bioink combination, cell type, growth, and differentiation. In this study, a composite material in 3D bioprinting studies has been developed for biofabrication of the cell carrying scaffolds namely cryogenic scaffolds. Cryogenic scaffolds are highly elastic and have a continuous interconnected macroporous structure in 3D biomaterials that enable the cell attachment, viability, and proliferation. Freeze-drying cryogelation process for the formation of cryogel scaffolds has been achieved firstly among 3D bioprinting studies. Cryogenic gelatin–hyaluronic acid (Gel–HA)-based 3D-bioprinted scaffolds have been fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope images, tensile tests, determination of swelling degree, and porosity. Then, L929 cells from mouse C3H/An have been attached to cryogenic Gel–HA scaffolds. Cell attachment, viability, and proliferation on cryogenic scaffolds have been investigated for 7 days. The results showed that a combination of 3D bioprinting technologies and cryogenic process provided a new direction on biomedical scaffolds.