Bacterial and Candida albicans adhesion on rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds manufactured as bone replacement materials

Rapid prototyping (RP)-produced scaffolds aregaining increasing importance in scaffold-guided tissueengineering. Microbial adhesion on the surface of replacement materials has a strong influence on healing and long-term outcome. Consequently, it is important to examine the adherence of microorganisms on RP-produced scaffolds. This research focussed on manufacturing of scaffolds by 3D-bioplotting and examination of their microbial adhesion characteristics. Tricalciumphosphate (TCP), calcium/sodium alginate, and poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) constructs were produced and used to study the adhesion of dental pathogens. Six oral bacterial strains, one Candida strain and human saliva were used for the adhesion studies. The number of colony forming units (CFU) were determined and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were performed. Microorganisms adhered to all scaffolds. All strains, except for Streptococcusoralis, adhered best to PLGA scaffolds. Streptococcusoralis adhered to each of the biomaterials equally. Streptococcusmutans and Enterococcus faecalis adhered best to PLGA scaffolds, followed by alginate and TCP. Prevotella nigrescens, Porphyromonasgingivalis, Streptococcussanguis, and Candida albicans showed the highest adherence to PLGA, followed by TCP and alginate. In contrast, the microorganisms of saliva adhered significantly better to TCP, followed by PLGA and alginate. SEM observations correlated with the results of the CFU determinations. CLSM detected bacteria within deeper sheets of alginate. In conclusion, because of the high adherence rate of oral pathogens to the scaffolds, the application of these biomaterials for bone replacement in oral surgery could result in biomaterial-related infections. Strategies to decrease microbial adherence and to prevent infections due to oral pathogens are discussed.