Comparative in vitro study of the cell proliferation of ovine and human osteoblast‐like cells on conventionally and rapid protot yping produced scaffolds tailored for application as potential bone replacement material

Reconstruction of bone defects in the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery is a relevant problem. In regenerative medicine, autologous bone is not available sufficiently. The full replacement of autologous bone grafts is required. A promising research field is the bone engineering. Especially the application of rapid prototyping (RP) enables new perspectives concerning the scaffold design. The aim of the study was to compare scaffolds produced by RP-technology (native and plasma-coated PLGA-scaffolds) with conventionally produced scaffolds (agar plates with hydroxyapatite and hyaluronic acid coated agar plates with hydroxyapatite) relating to proliferation, adhesion, and morphology of osteoblasts to get knowledge about the application potential of such 3D-manufactured matrices for bone engineering. TissueFoil E served as reference. To compare the scaffolds, 12 ovine and 12 human osteoblast-like cell cultures of the skull were used. Results were obtained by EZ4U, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy. The highest cell proliferation rate of human osteoblast-like cells was measured on TissueFoil E followed by plasma-coated PLGA-scaffolds and uncoated PLGA-scaffolds, whereas of ovine osteoblast-like cells on plasma-coated PLGA-scaffolds followed by TissueFoil E and uncoated PLGA-scaffolds. Human and ovine osteoblast-like cells on coated and uncoated agar plates had significant lower proliferation rates compared with TissueFoil E and PLGA-scaffolds. These results showed the potential of RP in the field of bone engineering. Mechanical properties of such scaffolds and in vivo studies should be investigated to examine if the scaffolds hold up the pressure it will undergo long enough to allow regrowth of bone and to examine the revascularization.