Comparison of bacterial adhesion and cellular proliferation on newly developed three-dimensional scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping technology

Scaffolds used in the field of tissue engineering should facilitate the adherence, spreading, and ingrowth of cells as well as prevent microbial adherence. For the first time, this study simultaneously deals with microbial and tissue cell adhesion to rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds. The cell growth of human osteosarcoma cells (CAL-72) over a time period of 3-11 days were examined on three scaffolds (PLGA, PLLA, PLLA-TCP) and compared to the adhesion of salivary microorganisms and representative germs of the oral flora (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell proliferation measurements, and determination of the colony forming units (CFU) were performed. The cell proliferation rates on PLLA and PLLA-TCP after 3, 7, and 11 days of cultivation were higher than on PLGA. On day 3 the proliferation rates on PLLA and PLLA-TCP, and on day 5 on PLLA-TCP, proved to be significantly higher compared to that of the control (culture plate). The strain which showed the most CFUs on all of the investigated scaffolds was P. gingivalis, followed by E. faecalis. No significant CFU differences were determined examining P. gingivalis among the biomaterials. In contrast, E. faecalis was significantly more adherent to PLGA and PLLA compared to PLLA-TCP. The lowest CFU values were seen with C. albicans and P. nigrescens. Salivary born aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms adhered significantly more to PLGA compared to PLLA-TCP. These results supported by SEM point out the high potential of PLLA-TCP in the field of tissue engineering.