Effect of scaffold architecture and BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery on in vitro bone regeneration
The aim of this study was to develop 3-D tissue engineered constructs that mimic the in vivo conditions through a self-contained growth factor delivery system. A set of nanoparticles providing the release of BMP-2 initially followed by the release of BMP-7 were incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different 3-D architectures produced by 3-D plotting and wet spinning. The release patterns were: each growth factor alone, simultaneous, and sequential. The orientation of the fibers did not have a significant effect on the kinetics of release of the model protein BSA; but affected proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cell proliferation on random scaffolds was significantly higher compared to the oriented ones. Delivery of BMP-2 alone suppressed MSC proliferation and increased the ALP activity to a higher level than that with BMP-7 delivery. Proliferation rate was suppressed the most by the sequential delivery of the two growth factors from the random scaffold on which the ALP activity was the highest. Results indicated the distinct effect of scaffold architecture and the mode of growth factor delivery on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, enabling us to design multifunctional scaffolds capable of controlling bone healing.