Enhanced bone regeneration by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and lipid microbubbles on PLGA/TCP 3D-printed scaffolds

BMC Biotechnology 2023 Volume 23, Article 13


To investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) combined with lipid microbubbles on the proliferation and bone regeneration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in poly (lactic-glycolic acid copolymer) (PLGA)/α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) 3D-printed scaffolds.


BMSCs were irradiated with different LIPUS parameters and microbubble concentrations, and the best acoustic excitation parameters were selected. The expression of type I collagen and the activity of alkaline phosphatase were detected. Alizarin red staining was used to evaluate the calcium salt production during osteogenic differentiation.


BMSCs proliferation was the most significant under the condition of 0.5% (v/v) lipid microbubble concentration, 2.0 MHz frequency, 0.3 W/cm2 sound intensity and 20% duty cycle. After 14 days, the type I collagen expression and alkaline phosphatase activity in the scaffold increased significantly compared to those in the control group, and alizarin red staining showed more calcium salt production during osteogenic differentiation. After 21 days, scanning electron microscopy experiments showed that osteogenesis was obvious in the PLGA/TCP scaffolds.


LIPUS combined with lipid microbubbles on PLGA/TCP scaffolds can promote BMSCs growth and bone differentiation, which is expected to provide a new and effective method for the treatment of bone regeneration in tissue engineering.