Experimental investigation of esophageal reconstruction with electrospun polyurethane nanofiber and 3D printing polycaprolactone scaffolds using a rat model

Background
We evaluated the outcome of esophageal reconstructions using tissue-engineered scaffolds.

Method
Partial esophageal defects were reconstructed with the following scaffolds; animals were grouped (n = 7 per group) as follows: (a) normal rats; (b) rats implanted with three-dimensional printing (3DP) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds; (c) with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-seeded 3DP PCL scaffolds; (d) with polyurethane (PU)-nanofiber(Nf) scaffolds; and (e) with ADSC-seeded PU-Nf scaffolds.

Results
The esophageal defects were successfully repaired; however, muscle regeneration was greater in the 3DP PCL + ADSC groups than in the PU-Nf + ADSC groups (P < .001). Regeneration of the epithelium was greater in PU-Nf and PU-Nf + ADSC groups than in the 3DP PCL and 3DP PCL + ADSC groups (P < .001). Conclusion A tendency for more re-epithelization was observed with the PU-Nf scaffolds, while more muscle regeneration was achieved with the 3DP PCL scaffolds.