Formulation of Dermal Tissue Matrix Bioink by a Facile Decellularization Method and Process Optimization for 3D Bioprinting toward Translation Research

Macromolecular Bioscience 2022 Volume 22, Issue 8, Article 2200109

Decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs) are being extensively used for tissue engineering purposes and detergents are predominantly used for this. A facile detergent-free decellularization method is developed for dermal matrix and compared it with the most used detergent-based decellularization methods. An optimized, single-step, cost-effective Hypotonic/Hypertonic (H/H) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solutions-based method is employed to decellularize goat skin that resulted in much higher yield than other methods. The ECM composition, mechanical property, and cytocompatibility are evaluated and compared with other decellularization methods. Furthermore, this H/H-treated decellularized dermal ECM (ddECM) exhibits a residual DNA content of <50 ng mg−1 of dry tissue. Moreover, 85.64 ± 3.01% of glycosaminoglycans and 65.53 ± 2.9% collagen are retained compared to the native tissue, which is higher than the ddECMs prepared by other methods. The cellular response is superior in ddECM (H/H) than other ddECMs prepared by detergent-based methods. Additionally, a bioink is formulated with the ddECM (H/H), showing good shear thinning and shear recovery properties. Process optimization in terms of print speed, flow rate, and viscosity is done to obtain a bioprinting window for ddECM bioink. The printed constructs with optimized parameters have adequate mechanical and cell adhesive properties and excellent isotropic cellular alignment.