In vitro characterisation of 3D printed platelet lysate-based bioink for potential application in skin tissue engineering
Wounds impact millions of patients every year and represent a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet current treatment outcomes are far from ideal. Therapies based on delivery of multiple growth factors offer a promising approach for optimal wound management; however, their high production cost, low stability, and lack of effective delivery system limits their application in the clinic. Platelet lysate is a suitable, abundant and cost-effective source of growth factors that play an important role in the healing cascade. The aim of this current work is to develop an extrusion-based bioink consisting of platelet lysate (PL) and gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) (PLGMA) for the fabrication of a multifunctional 3D printed dermal equivalent. This bioink meets the essential requirements of printability in terms of rheological properties and shape fidelity. Moreover, its mechanical properties can be readily tuned to achieve stiffness that is equivalent to native skin tissue. Biologically relevant factors were successfully released in a sustainable manner for up to two weeks of study. The bioavailability of those factors was demonstrated by high cell viability, good cell attachment and improved proliferation of printed dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, growth factors upregulated ECM synthesis and deposition by dermal fibroblasts after two weeks of culture.