Influence of surface engineering on 3D printed Ti lattice structure towards enhanced tissue integration: An in vitro and in vivo study
Reconstruction of segmental defects are popularly approached with surface engineered additively manufactured scaffolds owing to its enhanced post-surgery tissue integration properties. The present work is aimed at fabrication of Ti lattice structures using 3D printing, with a novel approach of silane chemistry-based surface modification of those Ti-surfaces with osteogenic peptides (OGP). The lattice structures with 0.6 mm strut-diameter having 0.5 mm inter-strut distance were chosen for fabrication using an extrusion-based 3D printing. Based on the evidence, it could be concluded that extrusion-based 3D printing is an optimal alternative as compared to those high cost incurring additive manufacturing processes. Therefore, OGP were grafted on the pristine Ti-surfaces using a silane chemistry based novel vapour deposition process. In vitro assessments of the surface modified scaffolds using human amniotic derived mesenchymal stem cells showed evidence of enhanced cell adhesion and viability. In vivo subcutaneous study in rat models of the surface modified Ti-scaffolds also showed enhanced tissue integration in terms of Collagen I deposition around the boundary of the tissue-integrated struts as compared to those of pristine scaffolds. The study has established that the novel surface modification technique is capable to engineer the Ti-surfaces towards enhanced tissue integration in vivo.