Malignant bone tumors have caused great obstacles and serious illnesses for tumor recurrence and difficulty in reconstructing and repairing large defects after tumorectomy. Additionally, long-term efficacy, satisfactory biocompatibility and excellent properties for anti-tumor agents are necessary in the biomedical field. To solve these problems, a novel idea has been proposed on building an integrative anti-tumor/bone repairing scaffold by covering photothermal therapy (PTT) composite MoS2-PLGA film on the surface of borosilicate bioactive glass (BG). In our study, the MoS2-integrated composite BG (BGM) scaffolds can rapidly and effectively elevate temperature, and they exhibited excellent photothermal stability, under 808 nm laser irradiation. Notably, the BGM scaffolds can effectively reduce the viability of osteosarcoma cells (MNNG/HOS) in vitro as well as inhibit the tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, the prepared BGM scaffolds can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), upregulate the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (Runx-2, OCN and Col-I) in vitro and promote in vivo bone repair in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. Therefore, the novel MoS2-integrated composite BG scaffolds are highly promising for the treatment of tumor-related bone defects, offering ideas for the manufacture of new materials in the tissue engineering field.