Metal Ion Augmented Mussel Inspired Polydopamine Immobilized 3D Printed Osteoconductive Scaffolds for Accelerated Bone Tissue Regeneration
Critical bone defects with a sluggish rate of auto-osteoconduction and imperfect reconstruction are motivators for the development of an alternate innovative approach for the regeneration of bone. Tissue engineering for bone regeneration signifies an advanced way to overcome this problem by creating an additional bone tissue substitute. Among different fabrication techniques, the 3D printing technique is obviously the most efficient and advanced way to fabricate an osteoconductive scaffold with a controlled porous structure. In the current article, the polycarbonate and polyester diol based polyurethane–urea (P12) was synthesized and 3D porous nanohybrid scaffolds (P12/TP-nHA) were fabricated using the 3D printing technique by incorporating the osteoconductive nanomaterial titanium phosphate adorned nanohydroxyapatite (TP-nHA). To improve the bioactivity, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified with the immobilized biomolecule polydopamine (PDA) at room temperature. XPS study as well as the measurement of surface wettability confirmed the higher amount of PDA immobilization on TP-nHA incorporated nanohybrid scaffolds through the dative bone formation between the vacant d orbital of the incorporated titanium ion and the lone pair electron of the catechol group of dopamine. The incorporated titanium phosphate (TP) increased the tensile strength (53.1%) and elongation at break (96.8%) of the nanohybrid composite as compared to pristine P12. Moreover, the TP incorporated nanohybrid scaffold with calcium and phosphate moieties and a higher amount of immobilized active biomolecule improved the in vitro bioactivity, including the cell viability, cell proliferation, and osteogenic gene expression using hMSCs, of the fabricated nanohybrid scaffolds. A rat tibia defect model depicted that the TP incorporated nanohybrid scaffold with immobilized PDA enhanced the in vivo bone regeneration ability compared to the control sample without revealing any organ toxicity signifying the superior osteogenic bioactivity. Thus, a TP augmented polydopamine immobilized polyurethane–urea based nanohybrid 3D printed scaffold with improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic bioactivity could be utilized as an excellent advanced material for bone regeneration substitute.