MI192 induced epigenetic reprogramming enhances the therapeutic efficacy of human bone marrows stromal cells for bone regeneration

Bone 2021 Volume 153, Article 116138

Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) have been extensively utilised for bone tissue engineering applications. However, they are associated with limitations that hinder their clinical utility for bone regeneration. Cell fate can be modulated via altering their epigenetic functionality. Inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have been reported to promote osteogenic differentiation, with HDAC3 activity shown to be causatively associated with osteogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential of using an HDAC2 & 3 selective inhibitor – MI192 to induce epigenetic reprogramming of hBMSCs and enhance its therapeutic efficacy for bone formation. Treatment with MI192 caused a time-dose dependant reduction in hBMSCs viability. MI192 was also found to substantially alter hBMSCs epigenetic function through reduced HDAC activity and increased histone acetylation. hBMSCs were pre-treated with MI192 (50 μM) for 48 h prior to osteogenic induction. MI192 pre-treatment significantly upregulated osteoblast-related gene/protein expression (Runx2, ALP, Col1a and OCN) and enhanced alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) (1.43-fold) (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, MI192 substantially increased hBMSCs extracellular matrix calcium deposition (1.4-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) and mineralisation when compared to the untreated control. In 3D microtissue culture, MI192 significantly promoted hBMSCs osteoblast-related gene expression and ALPSA (> 2.41-fold) (P ≤ 0.001). Importantly, MI192 substantially enhanced extracellular matrix deposition (ALP, Col1a, OCN) and mineralisation (1.67-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) within the bioassembled-microtissue (BMT) construct. Following 8-week intraperitoneal implantation within nude mice, MI192 treated hBMSCs exhibited enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and mineralisation (2.39-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) within the BMT when compared to the untreated BMT construct. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MI192 effectively altered hBMSCs epigenetic functionality and is capable of promoting hBMSCs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of using epigenetic reprogramming to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of hBMSCs for bone augmentation strategies.