Nanosilicate-Functionalized Polycaprolactone Orchestrates Osteogenesis and Osteoblast-Induced Multicellular Interactions for Potential Endogenous Vascularized Bone Regeneration
Massive oral and maxillofacial bone defect regeneration remains a major clinical challenge due to the absence of functionalized bone grafts with ideal mechanical and proregeneration properties. In the present study, Laponite (LAP), a synthetic nanosilicate, is incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) to develop a biomaterial for bone regeneration. It is explored whether LAP-embedded PCL would accelerate bone regeneration by orchestrating osteoblasts to directly and indirectly induce bone regeneration processes. The results confirmed the presence of LAP in PCL, and LAP is distributed in the exfoliated structure without aggregates. Incorporation of LAP in PCL slightly improved the compressive properties. LAP-embedded PCL is biocompatible and exerts pronounced enhancements in cell viability, osteogenic differentiation, and extracellular matrix formation of osteoblasts. Furthermore, osteoblasts cultured on LAP-embedded PCL facilitate angiogenesis of vessel endothelial cells and alleviate osteoclastogenesis of osteoclasts in a paracrine manner. The addition of LAP to the PCL endows favorable bone formation in vivo. Based upon these results, LAP-embedded PCL shows great potential as an ideal bone graft that exerts both space-maintaining and vascularized bone regeneration synergistic effects and can be envisioned for oral and maxillofacial bone defect regeneration.