Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo
In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration.