Vascularization and biocompatibility of scaffolds consisting of different calcium phosphate compounds
Scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone should mimic bone matrix and promote vascular ingrowth. Whether synthetic hydroxyapatite and acellular dentin, both materials composed from calcium phosphate, fulfill these material properties has not been studied yet. Therefore, we herein studied in vivo the host angiogenic and inflammatory response to these biomaterials. Porous scaffolds of hydroxyapatite and isogeneic acellular dentin were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of balb/c mice. Additional animals received perforated implants of isogeneic calvarial bone displaying pores similar in size and structure to those of both scaffolds. Chambers of animals without implants served as controls. Angiogenesis and neovascularization as well as inflammatory leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and microvascular leakage were analyzed over a 14-day time period using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Implantation of both hydroxyapatite and dentin scaffolds showed a slight increase in leukocyte recruitment compared with controls. This was associated with an elevation of microvascular permeability, which was comparable to that observed in response to isogeneic bone. In addition, hydroxyapatite as well as dentin scaffolds induced a marked angiogenic response, which resulted in complete vascularization of the implants until day 14. Of interest, in hydroxyapatite scaffolds, the newly formed capillaries were not as densely meshed as in dentin scaffolds, in which the functional capillary density was comparable to that measured in bone implants. Hydroxyapatite and, in particular, dentin scaffolds promote vascularization and exhibit a biocompatibility comparable to that of isogeneic bone. This may guarantee the rapid incorporation of these materials into the host tissue.