Vascularized bone regeneration accelerated by 3D-printed nanosilicate-functionalized polycaprolactone scaffold

Regenerative Biomaterials 2021 Volume 8, Issue 6, Article rbab061

Critical oral-maxillofacial bone defects, damaged by trauma and tumors, not only affect the physiological functions and mental health of patients but are also highly challenging to reconstruct. Personalized biomaterials customized by 3D printing technology have the potential to match oral-maxillofacial bone repair and regeneration requirements. Laponite (LAP) nanosilicates have been added to biomaterials to achieve biofunctional modification owing to their excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. Herein, porous nanosilicate-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL/LAP) was fabricated by 3D printing technology, and its bioactivities in bone regeneration were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PCL/LAP exhibited good cytocompatibility and enhanced the viability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). PCL/LAP functioned to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs at the mRNA and protein levels and elevated angiogenic gene expression and cytokine secretion. Moreover, BMSCs cultured on PCL/LAP promoted the angiogenesis potential of endothelial cells by angiogenic cytokine secretion. Then, PCL/LAP scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defect model. Toxicological safety of PCL/LAP was confirmed, and significant enhancement of vascularized bone formation was observed. Taken together, 3D-printed PCL/LAP scaffolds with brilliant osteogenesis to enhance bone regeneration could be envisaged as an outstanding bone substitute for a promising change in oral-maxillofacial bone defect reconstruction.