3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers by H. Schmal (6 results)

About the Mechanical Strength of Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds

Designs 2023 Volume 7, Issue 4, Article 87

For the treatment of bone defects, biodegradable, compressive biomaterials are needed as replacements that degrade as the bone regenerates. The problem with existing materials has either been their insufficient mechanical strength or the excessive differences in their elastic modulus, leading to stress shielding and eventual failure. In this study, the compressive strength of CPC ceramics (with a layer thickness of more than 12 layers) was compared with sintered β-TCP ceramics. It was assumed that as the number of layers increased, the mechanical strength of 3D-printed scaffolds would increase toward the value of sintered ceramics. In addition, the influence of the…

The Effect of Collagen-I Coatings of 3D Printed PCL Scaffolds for Bone Replacement on Three Different Cell Types

Applied Sciences 2021 Volume 11, Issue 22, Article 11063

Introduction The use of scaffolds in tissue engineering is becoming increasingly important as solutions need to be found to preserve human tissues such as bone or cartilage. Various factors, including cells, biomaterials, cell and tissue culture conditions, play a crucial role in tissue engineering. The in vivo environment of the cells exerts complex stimuli on the cells, thereby directly influencing cell behavior, including proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, to create suitable replacement or regeneration procedures for human tissues, the conditions of the cells’ natural environment should be well mimicked. Therefore, current research is trying to develop 3-dimensional scaffolds (scaffolds) that can…

About 3D Printability of Thermoplastic Collagen for Biomedical Applications

Bioengineering 2022 Volume 9, Issue 12, Article 780

With more than 1.5 million total knee and hip implants placed each year, there is an urgent need for a drug delivery system that can effectively support the repair of bone infections. Scaffolds made of natural biopolymers are widely used for this purpose due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and suitable mechanical properties. However, the poor processability is a bottleneck, as highly customizable scaffolds are desired. The aim of the present research is to develop a scaffold made of thermoplastic collagen (TC) using 3D printing technology. The viscosity of the material was measured using a rheometer. A 3D bioplotter was used…

Influence of 3D Printing Parameters on the Mechanical Stability of PCL Scaffolds and the Proliferation Behavior of Bone Cells

Materials 2022 Volume 15, Issue 6, Article 2091

Introduction The use of scaffolds in tissue engineering is becoming increasingly important as solutions need to be found for the problem of preserving human tissue, such as bone or cartilage. In this work, scaffolds were printed from the biomaterial known as polycaprolactone (PCL) on a 3D Bioplotter. Both the external and internal geometry were varied to investigate their influence on mechanical stability and biocompatibility. Materials and Methods: An Envisiontec 3D Bioplotter was used to fabricate the scaffolds. First, square scaffolds were printed with variations in the strand width and strand spacing. Then, the filling structure was varied: either lines, waves,…

The Mineralization of Various 3D-Printed PCL Composites

Journal of Functional Biomaterials 2022 Volume 13, Issue 4, Article 238

In this project, different calcification methods for collagen and collagen coatings were compared in terms of their applicability for 3D printing and production of collagen-coated scaffolds. For this purpose, scaffolds were printed from polycaprolactone PCL using the EnvisionTec 3D Bioplotter and then coated with collagen. Four different coating methods were then applied: hydroxyapatite (HA) powder directly in the collagen coating, incubation in 10× SBF, coating with alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and coating with poly-L-aspartic acid. The results were compared by ESEM, µCT, TEM, and EDX. HA directly in the collagen solution resulted in a pH change and thus an increase in…

Alternative Geometries for 3D Bioprinting of Calcium Phosphate Cement as Bone Substitute

Biomedicines 2022 Volume 10, Issue 12, Article 3242

In the literature, many studies have described the 3D printing of ceramic-based scaffolds (e.g., printing with calcium phosphate cement) in the form of linear structures with layer rotations of 90°, although no right angles can be found in the human body. Therefore, this work focuses on the adaptation of biological shapes, including a layer rotation of only 1°. Sample shapes were printed with calcium phosphate cement using a 3D Bioplotter from EnvisionTec. Both straight and wavy spokes were printed in a round structure with 12 layers. Depending on the strand diameter (200 and 250 µm needle inner diameter) and strand…