3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about Fibroblasts (51 results)

Degradation behavior of polylactic-co-glycolic acid and polycaprolactone with nanosilver scaffolds

Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2023 Volume 140, Issue 44, Article e54664

Ureteral stents are commonly used in clinical treatment of ureteral diseases. There were a series of complications, such as biofilms and crusts caused by bacteria after surgery. Therefore, biodegradable with bacteriostatic ureteral scaffolds would be the potential to solve above mentioned problems. In this study, nanosilver (AgNP) was added to the polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) to prepare biodegradable antibacterial ureteral scaffold samples by 3D printing. The biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, degradability, and mechanical properties of samples were observed. The samples were under a strong inhibitory effect on both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the…

Embedded Bioprinting of Breast Tumor Cells and Organoids Using Low-Concentration Collagen-Based Bioinks

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2023 Volume 12, Issue 26, Article 2300905

Bioinks for 3D bioprinting of tumor models should not only meet printability requirements but also accurately maintain and support phenotypes of tumor surrounding cells to recapitulate key tumor hallmarks. Collagen is a major extracellular matrix protein for solid tumors, but low viscosity of collagen solution has made 3D bioprinted cancer models challenging. This work produces embedded, bioprinted breast cancer cells and tumor organoid models using low-concentration collagen I based bioinks. The biocompatible and physically crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogel is used to generate the support bath for the embedded 3D printing. The composition of the collagen I based bioink is optimized…

Carboxymethyl cellulose-agarose-gelatin: A thermoresponsive triad bioink composition to fabricate volumetric soft tissue constructs

SLAS Technology 2023 Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 183–198

Polysaccharide based hydrogels have been predominantly utilized as ink materials for 3D bioprinting due to biocompatibility and cell responsive features. However, most hydrogels require extensive crosslinking due to poor mechanical properties leading to limited printability. To improve printability without using cytotoxic crosslinkers, thermoresponsive bioinks could be developed. Agarose is a thermoresponsive polysaccharide with upper critical solution temperature (UCST) for sol-gel transition at 35–37 °C. Therefore, we hypothesized that a triad of carboxymethyl cellulose(C)–agarose(A)–gelatin(G) could be a suitable thermoresponsive ink for printing since they undergo instantaneous gelation without any addition of crosslinkers after bioprinting. The blend of agarose-carboxymethyl cellulose was mixed with…

Silk fibroin, gelatin, and human placenta extracellular matrix-based composite hydrogels for 3D bioprinting and soft tissue engineering

Biomaterials Research 2023 Volume 27, Article 117

Background There is a great clinical need and it remains a challenge to develop artificial soft tissue constructs that can mimic the biomechanical properties and bioactivity of natural tissue. This is partly due to the lack of suitable biomaterials. Hydrogels made from human placenta offer high bioactivity and represent a potential solution to create animal-free 3D bioprinting systems that are both sustainable and acceptable, as placenta is widely considered medical waste. A combination with silk and gelatin polymers can bridge the biomechanical limitations of human placenta chorion extracellular matrix hydrogels (hpcECM) while maintaining their excellent bioactivity.   Method In this…

Formulation of Dermal Tissue Matrix Bioink by a Facile Decellularization Method and Process Optimization for 3D Bioprinting toward Translation Research

Macromolecular Bioscience 2022 Volume 22, Issue 8, Article 2200109

Decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs) are being extensively used for tissue engineering purposes and detergents are predominantly used for this. A facile detergent-free decellularization method is developed for dermal matrix and compared it with the most used detergent-based decellularization methods. An optimized, single-step, cost-effective Hypotonic/Hypertonic (H/H) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solutions-based method is employed to decellularize goat skin that resulted in much higher yield than other methods. The ECM composition, mechanical property, and cytocompatibility are evaluated and compared with other decellularization methods. Furthermore, this H/H-treated decellularized dermal ECM (ddECM) exhibits a residual DNA content of <50 ng mg−1 of dry tissue. Moreover, 85.64 ± 3.01% of glycosaminoglycans…

Novel bioprinted 3D model to human fibrosis investigation

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2023 Volume 165, Article 115146

Fibrosis is shared in multiple diseases with progressive tissue stiffening, organ failure and limited therapeutic options. This unmet need is also due to the lack of adequate pre-clinical models to mimic fibrosis and to be challenged novel by anti-fibrotic therapeutic venues. Here using bioprinting, we designed a novel 3D model where normal human healthy fibroblasts have been encapsulated in type I collagen. After stimulation by Transforming Growth factor beta (TGFβ), embedded cells differentiated into myofibroblasts and enhanced the contractile activity, as confirmed by the high level of α − smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and F-actin expression. As functional assays, SEM…

Influence of surface engineering on 3D printed Ti lattice structure towards enhanced tissue integration: An in vitro and in vivo study

Talanta Open 2023 Volume 8, Article 100256

Reconstruction of segmental defects are popularly approached with surface engineered additively manufactured scaffolds owing to its enhanced post-surgery tissue integration properties. The present work is aimed at fabrication of Ti lattice structures using 3D printing, with a novel approach of silane chemistry-based surface modification of those Ti-surfaces with osteogenic peptides (OGP). The lattice structures with 0.6 mm strut-diameter having 0.5 mm inter-strut distance were chosen for fabrication using an extrusion-based 3D printing. Based on the evidence, it could be concluded that extrusion-based 3D printing is an optimal alternative as compared to those high cost incurring additive manufacturing processes. Therefore, OGP…

Dynamic and Degradable Imine-Based Networks for 3D-Printing of Soft Elastomeric Self-Healable Devices

Advanced Materials Interfaces 2023 Volume 10, Issue 17, Article 2300066

Self-healable degradable networks encounter a growing popularity for biomedical applications due to their ability to recover their properties after damage. Self-healable hydrogels dominate with applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. On the opposite and despite their potential for medical devices, self-healable elastomers remain scarce, especially if they must be compatible with fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D-printing and self-heal at physiological temperature under a hydrated state. These unmet challenges are addressed in this work with degradable elastomeric networks based on dynamic imine bonds prepared from multi(aldehyde) and multi(amine) hydrophobic PEG-PLA star-shaped copolymers. The star topology of these copolymers is the…

4D printing of multiple shape memory polymer and nanocomposites with biocompatible, programmable and selectively actuated properties

Additive Manufacturing 2022 Volume 53, Article 102689

4D printing of shape memory polymers (SMPs) endows the 3D printed structures with tunable shape-changing behavior and functionalities that opens up new avenues towards intelligent devices. Multiple-SMPs, specially, could memorize more than two shapes that have greatly extended the performance of 4D printed structures. However, the actuation to trigger the shape change of 4D printed multiple-SMPs is usually by direct heating to different temperatures. It hasn’t brought the full superiority of the programmability of multiple-SMPs with distinct responsive regions that could be sequentially and selectively actuated by various stimuli. Besides, the functionality of multi-material based additive manufacturing is another area…

3D-printed bi-layered polymer/hydrogel construct for interfacial tissue regeneration in a canine model

Dental Materials 2022 Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1316-1329

Objectives There are complications in applying regenerative strategies at the interface of hard and soft tissues due to the limited designs of constructs that can accommodate different cell types in different sites. The problem originates from the challenges in the adhesion of dissimilar materials, such as polymers and hydrogels, that can be suitable for regenerating different tissues such as bone and soft tissues. This paper presents a design of a new hybrid construct in which a polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)) membrane firmly adheres to a layer of hydrogen (gelatin). Methods PCL membranes with defined size and porosity were fabricated using 3D…

3D-printed high-density polyethylene scaffolds with bioactive and antibacterial layer-by-layer modification for auricle reconstruction

Materials Today Bio 2022 Volume 16, Article 100361

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a promising material for the development of scaffold implants for auricle reconstruction. However, preparing a personalized HDPE auricle implant with favorable bioactive and antibacterial functions to promote skin tissue ingrowth is challenging. Herein, we present 3D-printed HDPE auricle scaffolds with satisfactory pore size and connectivity. The layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied to achieve the improved bioactive and antibacterial properties of these 3D printed scaffolds. The HDPE auricle scaffolds were fabricated using an extrusion 3D printing approach, and the individualized macrostructure and porous microstructure were both adjusted by the 3D printing parameters. The polydopamine (pDA) coating method…

4D printed orbital stent for the treatment of enophthalmic invagination

Biomaterials 2022 Volume 291, Article 121886

Currently, the implants used for enophthalmic invagination have the disadvantages of precise filling difficulty, weak filling ability, large surgical wounds, and lack of CT development. Here, a CT-developable orbital stent was manufactured via 4D printing of a shape memory polyurethane composite for enophthalmos treatment. The composite was endowed with good CT development properties via incorporation of gold nanoparticles and nano-hydroxyapatite. Based on the bionic idea and CT reconstruction technique, a 4D printed orbital stent with a bionic honeycomb pore structure and an outer contour matching the orbital coloboma was designed to support the orbital tissue more accurately and stably. CT…

Surface-Modified Polypyrrole-Coated PLCL and PLGA Nerve Guide Conduits Fabricated by 3D Printing and Electrospinning

Biomacromolecules 2022 Volume 23, Issue 11, Pages 4532-4546

The efficiency of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in repairing peripheral nerve injury is not high enough yet to be a substitute for autografts and is still insufficient for clinical use. To improve this efficiency, 3D electrospun scaffolds (3D/E) of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were designed and fabricated by the combination of 3D printing and electrospinning techniques, resulting in an ideal porous architecture for NGCs. Polypyrrole (PPy) was deposited on PLCL and PLGA scaffolds to enhance biocompatibility for nerve recovery. The designed pore architecture of these “PLCL-3D/E” and “PLGA-3D/E” scaffolds exhibited a combination of nano- and microscale structures. The mean…

Alternative Geometries for 3D Bioprinting of Calcium Phosphate Cement as Bone Substitute

Biomedicines 2022 Volume 10, Issue 12, Article 3242

In the literature, many studies have described the 3D printing of ceramic-based scaffolds (e.g., printing with calcium phosphate cement) in the form of linear structures with layer rotations of 90°, although no right angles can be found in the human body. Therefore, this work focuses on the adaptation of biological shapes, including a layer rotation of only 1°. Sample shapes were printed with calcium phosphate cement using a 3D Bioplotter from EnvisionTec. Both straight and wavy spokes were printed in a round structure with 12 layers. Depending on the strand diameter (200 and 250 µm needle inner diameter) and strand…

Biologically Enhanced Starch Bio-Ink for Promoting 3D Cell Growth

Advanced Materials Technologies 2021 Volue 6, Issue 12, Article 2100551

The excellent rheological property has legitimated the suitability of starch hydrogel for extrusion-based 3D printing. However, the inability to promote cell attachment and migration has precluded the non-modified starch hydrogel from direct applications in the biomedical field. Herein, a novel 3D printable nanocomposite starch hydrogel is developed with highly enhanced biocompatibility for promoting 3D cell growth, by formulating with gelatin nanoparticles and collagen. The rheological evaluation reveals the shear-thinning and thixotropic properties of the starch-based hydrogel, as well as the combinatorial effect of collagen and gelatin nanoparticles on maintaining printability and 3D shape fidelity. The homogeneous microporous structure with abundant…

Investigation of the 3D Printability of Covalently Cross-Linked Polypeptide-Based Hydrogels

ACS Omega 2022 Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 7556-7571

The 3D printability of poly(l-lysine-ran–l-alanine) and four-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (P(KA)/4-PEG) hydrogels as 3D biomaterial inks was investigated using two approaches to develop P(KA)/4-PEG into 3D biomaterial inks. Only the “composite microgel” inks were 3D printable. In this approach, P(KA)/4-PEG hydrogels were processed into microparticles and incorporated into a polymer solution to produce a composite microgel paste. Polymer solutions composed of either 4-arm PEG-acrylate (4-PEG-Ac), chitosan (CS), or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were used as the matrix material for the composite paste. The three respective composite microgel inks displayed good 3D printability in terms of extrudability, layer-stacking ability, solidification mechanism, and 3D…

In vitro characterisation of 3D printed platelet lysate-based bioink for potential application in skin tissue engineering

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 123, Pages 286-297

Wounds impact millions of patients every year and represent a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet current treatment outcomes are far from ideal. Therapies based on delivery of multiple growth factors offer a promising approach for optimal wound management; however, their high production cost, low stability, and lack of effective delivery system limits their application in the clinic. Platelet lysate is a suitable, abundant and cost-effective source of growth factors that play an important role in the healing cascade. The aim of this current work is to develop an extrusion-based bioink consisting of platelet lysate (PL) and gelatin…

Impact of cell density on the bioprinting of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) bioinks

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 22, Article e00131

3D printing of cell laden bioinks has the potential to recapitulate the hierarchical and spatial complexity of native tissues. However, the addition of cells can alter physical properties of printable resins, which in turn may impede or induce cellular sedimentation or affect the printability and shape fidelity of the final construct. In this study we investigated these considerations by bioprinting gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) bioinks, loaded with various concentrations of mouse fibroblast cells (L929), using extrusion-based direct-write 3D printing (EDP). The impact of various cellular concentrations on viscosity, and temperature-driven gelation of GelMA was examined with a rheometer. The effect of…

Freeform 3D printing using a continuous viscoelastic supporting matrix

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 3, Article 035017

Embedded bio-printing has fostered significant advances toward the fabrication of soft complex tissue-like constructs, by providing a physical support that allows the freeform shape maintenance within the prescribed spatial arrangement, even under gravity force. Current supporting materials still present major drawbacks for up-scaling embedded 3D bio-printing technology towards tissue-like constructs with clinically relevant dimensions. Herein, we report a a cost-effective and widely available supporting material for embedded bio-printing consisting on a continuous pseudo-plastic matrix of xanthan-gum (XG). This natural polisaccharide exhibits peculiar rheological properties that have enabled the rapid generation of complex volumetric 3D constructs with out-of-plane features. The freedom…

A powerful combination in designing polymeric scaffolds: 3D bioprinting and cryogelation

International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials 2020 Volume 71, Issue 4, Pages 278-290

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies have great attention in different researching areas such as tissue engineering, medicine, etc. due to its maximum mimetic property of natural biomaterials by providing cell combination, growth factors, and other biomaterials. Bioprinting of tissues, organs, or drug delivery systems emerged layer-by-layer deposition of bioinks. 3D bioprinting technique has some complexity such as choice of bioink combination, cell type, growth, and differentiation. In this study, a composite material in 3D bioprinting studies has been developed for biofabrication of the cell carrying scaffolds namely cryogenic scaffolds. Cryogenic scaffolds are highly elastic and have a continuous interconnected macroporous structure…

Control Delivery of Multiple Growth Factors to Actively Steer Differentiation and Extracellular Matrix Protein Production

Advanced Biology 2021 Volume 5, Issue 4, Article 2000205

In tissue engineering, biomaterials have been used to steer the host response. This determines the outcome of tissue regeneration, which is modulated by multiple growth factors (GFs). Hence, a sustainable delivery system for GFs is necessary to control tissue regeneration actively. A delivery technique of single and multiple GF combinations, using a layer‐by‐layer (LBL) procedure to improve tissue remodeling, is developed. TGF‐β1, PDGF‐ββ, and IGF‐1 are incorporated on tailor‐made polymeric rods, which could be used as a tool for potential tissue engineering applications, such as templates to induce the formation of in situ tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Cell response…

3D bioprinting dermal-like structures using species-specific ulvan

Biomaterials Science 2021 Volume 9, Pages 2424-2438

3D bioprinting has been increasingly employed in skin tissue engineering for manufacturing living constructs with three-dimensional spatial precision and controlled architecture. There is however, a bottleneck in the tunability of bioinks to address specific biocompatibility challenges, functional traits and printability. Here we report on a traditional gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) based bioink, tuned by addition of an ulvan type polysaccharide, isolated from a cultivated source of a specific Australian Ulvacean macroalgae (Ul84). Ul84 is a sulfate- and rhamnose-rich polysaccharide, resembling mammalian glycosaminoglycans that are involved in wound healing and tissue matrix structure and function. Printable bioinks were developed by addition of…

Benefits of Polydopamine as Particle/Matrix Interface in Polylactide/PD-BaSO4 Scaffolds

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020 Volume 21, Issue 15, Article 5480

This work reports the versatility of polydopamine (PD) when applied as a particle coating in a composite of polylactide (PLA). Polydopamine was observed to increase the particle–matrix interface strength and facilitate the adsorption of drugs to the material surface. Here, barium sulfate radiopaque particles were functionalized with polydopamine and integrated into a polylactide matrix, leading to the formulation of a biodegradable and X-ray opaque material with enhanced mechanical properties. Polydopamine functionalized barium sulfate particles also facilitated the adsorption and release of the antibiotic levofloxacin. Analysis of the antibacterial capacity of these composites and the metabolic activity and proliferation of human…

Fiber engraving for bioink bioprinting within 3D printed tissue engineering scaffolds

Bioprinting 2020 Volume 18, Article e00076

In this work, we describe a new 3D printing methodology for the fabrication of multimaterial scaffolds involving the combination of thermoplastic extrusion and low temperature extrusion of bioinks. A fiber engraving technique was used to create a groove on the surface of a thermoplastic printed fiber using a commercial 3D printer and a low viscosity bioink was deposited into this groove. In contrast to traditional extrusion bioinks that rely on increased viscosity to prevent lateral spreading, this groove creates a defined space for bioink deposition. By physically constraining bioink spreading, a broader range of viscosities can be used. As proof-of-concept,…

A smart scaffold composed of three-dimensional printing and electrospinning techniques and its application in rat abdominal wall defects

Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2020 Volume 11, Article number 533

Background Biological composite scaffolds are increasingly being used in abdominal wall reconstruction but still have certain shortcomings. The present study describes here a novel three-dimensional (3D) scaffold fabricated by combining 3D printing (3DP) and electrospinning (ESP). Methods Biological composite scaffolds are composed of integrated 3DP interconnected macrofiber and random ESP microfiber networks. The 3DP scaffold retains intact 3D architecture and mechanical properties, while the ESP network serves as a cell entrapment system at the extracellular matrix (ECM) scale. Biological composite scaffolds are implanted in a defective rat abdominal wall to detect if it could induce early vascularization and reconstruction of…

Three-dimensional printed multiphasic scaffolds with stratified cell-laden gelatin methacrylate hydrogels for biomimetic tendon-to-bone interface engineering

Journal of Orthopaedic Translation 2020 Volume 23, Pages 89-100

Background The anatomical properties of the enthesis of the rotator cuff are hardly regained during the process of healing. The tendon-to-bone interface is normally replaced by fibrovascular tissue instead of interposition fibrocartilage, which impairs biomechanics in the shoulder and causes dysfunction. Tissue engineering offers a promising strategy to regenerate a biomimetic interface. Here, we report heterogeneous tendon-to-bone interface engineering based on a 3D-printed multiphasic scaffold. Methods A multiphasic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)–PCL/tricalcium phosphate–PCL/tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold was manufactured using 3D printing technology. The three phases of the scaffold were designed to mimic the graded tissue regions in the tendon-to-bone interface—tendon, fibrocartilage, and…

Cell Bioprinting: The 3D-Bioplotter™ Case

Materials 2019 Volume 12, Issue 23, Article 4005

The classic cell culture involves the use of support in two dimensions, such as a well plate or a Petri dish, that allows the culture of different types of cells. However, this technique does not mimic the natural microenvironment where the cells are exposed to. To solve that, three-dimensional bioprinting techniques were implemented, which involves the use of biopolymers and/or synthetic materials and cells. Because of a lack of information between data sources, the objective of this review paper is, to sum up, all the available information on the topic of bioprinting and to help researchers with the problematics with…

3D Bioprinting of the Sustained Drug Release Wound Dressing with Double-Crosslinked Hyaluronic-Acid-Based Hydrogels

Polymers 2019 Volume 11, Issue 10, Article 1584

Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility. HA can be Ultraviolet (UV)-crosslinked by modification with methacrylic anhydride (HA-MA) and crosslinked by modification with 3,3′-dithiobis(propionylhydrazide) (DTP) (HA-SH) via click reaction. In the study presented in this paper, a 3D-bioprinted, double-crosslinked, hyaluronic-acid-based hydrogel for wound dressing was proposed. The hydrogel was produced by mixing HA-MA and HA-SH at different weight ratios. The rheological test showed that the storage modulus (G’) of the HA-SH/HA-MA hydrogel increased with the increase in the HA-MA content. The hydrogel had a high swelling ratio and a high controlled degradation…

Employing PEG crosslinkers to optimize cell viability in gel phase bioinks and tailor post printing mechanical properties

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 99, Pages 121-132

The field of 3D bioprinting has rapidly grown, yet the fundamental ability to manipulate material properties has been challenging with current bioink methods. Here, we change bioink properties using our PEG cross-linking (PEGX) bioink method with the objective of optimizing cell viability while retaining control of mechanical properties of the final bioprinted construct. First, we investigate cytocompatible, covalent cross-linking chemistries for bioink synthesis (e.g. Thiol Michael type addition and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction). We demonstrate these reactions are compatible with the bioink method, which results in high cell viability. The PEGX method is then exploited to optimize extruded…

Silk particles, microfibres and nanofibres: A comparative study of their functions in 3D printing hydrogel scaffolds

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019 Volume 103, Article 109784

Silk, with highly crystalline structure and well-documented biocompatibility, is promising to be used as reinforcing material and build functionalized composite scaffolds. In the present study, we developed chitosan/silk composite scaffolds using silk particles, silk microfibres and nanofibres via 3D printing method. The three forms of silk fillers with varied shapes and dimensions were obtained via different processing methods and evaluated of their morphology, crystalline structure and thermal property. All silk fillers showed different degrees of improvement on printability in terms of ink rheology and printing shape fidelity. Different silk fillers led to different scaffold surface morphology and different roughness, while…

Bacterial cellulose nanofibers promote stress and fidelity of 3D-printed silk based hydrogel scaffold with hierarchical pores

Carbohydrate Polymers 2019 Volume 221, Pages 146-156

One of the latest trends in the regenerative medicine is the development of 3D-printing hydrogel scaffolds with biomimetic structures for tissue regeneration and organ reconstruction. However, it has been practically difficult to achieve a highly biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds with proper mechanical properties matching the natural tissue. Here, bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNFs) were applied to improve the structural resolution and enhance mechanical properties of silk fibroin (SF)/gelatin composite hydrogel scaffolds. The SF-based hydrogel scaffolds with hierarchical pores were fabricated via 3D-printing followed by lyophilization. Results showed that the tensile strength of printed sample increased significantly with the addition of BCNFs in…

Quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell-laden hydrogels and printed constructs

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 91, Pages 173-185

In the present work we have revisited the application of quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) to cellular hydrogels, by using the reference phantom method (RPM) in combination with a local attenuation compensation algorithm. The investigated biological samples consisted of cell-laden collagen hydrogels with PC12 neural cells. These cell-laden hydrogels were used to calibrate the integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) as a function of cell density, which was then used to generate parametric images of local cell density. The image resolution used for QUI and its impact on the relative IBC error was also investigated. Another important contribution of our work was the…

Tough and Processable Hydrogels Based on Lignin and Hydrophilic Polyurethane

ACS Applied Bio Materials 2018 Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 2073–2081

Lignin is a low-cost, natural polymer with abundant polar sites on its backbone that can be utilized for physical cross-linking of polymers. Here, we use lignin for additional cross-linking of hydrophilic polyether-based polyurethane (HPU) hydrogels, aiming to improve their mechanical properties and processability. Without reducing the swelling, simple addition of 2.5 wt % lignin increases the fracture energy and Young’s modulus of HPU hydrogels from, respectively, 1540 ± 40 to 2050 ± 50 J m–2 and 1.29 ± 0.06 to 2.62 ± 0.84 MPa. Lignin also increases the lap shear adhesiveness of hydrogels and induces an immediate load recovery of…

Tyrosinase-doped bioink for 3D bioprinting of living skin constructs

Biomedical Materials 2018 Volume 13, Number 3, Article Number 035008

Three-dimensional bioprinting is an emerging technology for fabricating living 3D constructs, and it has shown great promise in tissue engineering. Bioinks are scaffold materials mixed with cells used by 3D bioprinting to form a required cell-laden structure. In this paper, a novel bioink made of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) and collagen (Col) doped with tyrosinase (Ty) is presented for the 3D bioprinting of living skin tissues. Ty has the dual function of being an essential bioactive compound in the skin regeneration process and also as an enzyme to facilitate the crosslink of Col and GelMA. Further, enzyme crosslinking together with photocrosslinking…

Voltaglue Bioadhesives Energized with Interdigitated 3D‐Graphene Electrodes

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2018 Volume 7, Issue 21, Article 1800538

Soft tissue fixation of implant and bioelectrodes relies on mechanical means (e.g., sutures, staples, and screws), with associated complications of tissue perforation, scarring, and interfacial stress concentrations. Adhesive bioelectrodes address these shortcomings with voltage cured carbene‐based bioadhesives, locally energized through graphene interdigitated electrodes. Electrorheometry and adhesion structure activity relationships are explored with respect to voltage and electrolyte on bioelectrodes synthesized from graphene 3D‐printed onto resorbable polyester substrates. Adhesive leachates effects on in vitro metabolism and human‐derived platelet‐rich plasma response serves to qualitatively assess biological response. The voltage activated bioadhesives are found to have gelation times of 60 s or less…

3D Printing of Silk Particle-Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel Structures and Their Properties

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2018 Volume 4, Issue 8, Pages 3036-3046

Hydrogel bioprinting is a major area of focus in the field of tissue engineering. However, 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds often suffer from low printing accuracy and poor mechanical properties because of their soft nature and tendency to shrink. This makes it challenging to process them into structural materials. In this study, natural chitosan hydrogel scaffolds were, for the first time, reinforced with milled silk particles and fabricated by 3D printing. Compared with pure chitosan scaffolds, the addition of silk particles resulted in up to a 5-fold increase in compressive modulus as well as significantly better printing accuracy and improved scaffold…

Imaging stem cell distribution, growth, migration, and differentiation in 3-D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesoscopic fluorescence tomography

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2017 Volume 115, Issue 1, Pages 257-265

Regenerative medicine has emerged as an important discipline that aims to repair injury or replace damaged tissues or organs by introducing living cells or functioning tissues. Successful regenerative medicine strategies will likely depend upon a simultaneous optimization strategy for the design of biomaterials, cell-seeding methods, cell-biomaterial interactions and molecular signaling within the engineered tissues. It remains a challenge to image three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the cell-seeded scaffold in mesoscopic scale (>2∼3 mm). In this study, we utilized angled fluorescence laminar optical tomography (aFLOT), which allows depth-resolved molecular characterization of engineered tissues in 3-D to investigate cell viability, migration and…

Repair of Tympanic Membrane Perforations with Customized, Bioprinted Ear Grafts Using Chinchilla Models

Tissue Engineering Part A 2017 Volume: 24 Issue 5-6, Pages 527-535

The goal of this work is to develop an innovative method that combines bioprinting and endoscopic imaging to repair tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). TMPs are a serious health issue because they can lead to both conductive hearing loss and repeated otitis media. TMPs occur in 3 to 5% of cases after ear tube placement as well as in cases of acute otitis media (the second most common infection in pediatrics), chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, or as a result of barotrauma to the ear. About 55,000 tympanoplasties, the surgery performed to reconstruct TMPs, are performed every year and…

Extraction and characterization of collagen from Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic squid and its potential application in hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2017 Volume 78, 1 September 2017, Pages 787–795

Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals and it exhibits a low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability when compared with others natural polymers. For this reason, it has been explored for the development of biologically instructive biomaterials with applications for tissue substitution and regeneration. Marine origin collagen has been pursued as an alternative to the more common bovine and porcine origins. This study focused on squid (Teuthoidea: Cephalopoda), particularly the Antarctic squid Kondakovia longimana and the Sub-Antarctic squid Illex argentinus as potential collagen sources. In this study, collagen has been isolated from the skins of the squids using…

Conductive Composite Fibres from Reduced Graphene Oxide and Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2016 Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 1142-1179

Continuous composite fibres composed of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at different mass ratios were fabricated using a single step wet-spinning approach. The electrical conductivity of the composite fibres increased significantly with the addition of rGO. The mechanical properties of the composite fibres also improved by the addition of rGO sheets compared to fibres containing only PPy. The ultimate tensile strength of the fibres increased with the proportion of rGO mass present. The elongation at break was greatest for the composite fibre containing equal mass ratios of PPy nanoparticles and rGO sheets. L929 fibroblasts seeded onto fibres…

Exploring the Potential of Starch/Polycaprolactone Aligned Magnetic Responsive Scaffolds for Tendon Regeneration

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2016 Volume 5, Issue 2, pages 213–222

The application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in tissue engineering (TE) approaches opens several new research possibilities in this field, enabling a new generation of multifunctional constructs for tissue regeneration. This study describes the development of sophisticated magnetic polymer scaffolds with aligned structural features aimed at applications in tendon tissue engineering (TTE). Tissue engineering magnetic scaffolds are prepared by incorporating iron oxide MNPs into a 3D structure of aligned SPCL (starch and polycaprolactone) fibers fabricated by rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The 3D architecture, composition, and magnetic properties are characterized. Furthermore, the effect of an externally applied magnetic field is investigated on…

Material design and photo-regulated hydrolytic degradation behavior of tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated via 3D fiber deposition

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2016 Volume 5, Pages 329-340

An ideal behavior of a tissue engineering scaffold is that it degrades and reshapes at a rate that matches the formation of new tissues. However, this ideal situation may not occur as the scaffold often undergoes too slow or too fast degradation. To test the promise of the active control of scaffold degradation, in this work, a photo/water dual-degradable porous scaffold was designed and fabricated using a 3D fiber deposition (3DF) system from a linear biopolymer (named PLANB) that combined the o-nitrobenzyl linkages and hydrolysable ester bone in the polymer chains. The chemical structure, molecular weight and polydispersity of PLANB…

A Multimaterial Bioink Method for 3D Printing Tunable, Cell-Compatible Hydrogels

Advanced Materials 2015 Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1607–1614

A multimaterial bio-ink method using polyethylene glycol crosslinking is presented for expanding the biomaterial palette required for 3D bioprinting of more mimetic and customizable tissue and organ constructs. Lightly crosslinked, soft hydrogels are produced from precursor solutions of various materials and 3D printed. Rheological and biological characterizations are presented, and the promise of this new bio-ink synthesis strategy is discussed.

A bio-friendly, green route to processable, biocompatible graphene/polymer composites

RSC Advances 2015 Volume 5, Issue 56, 45284-45290

Graphene-based polymer composites are a very promising class of compounds for tissue engineering scaffolds. However, in general the methods of synthesis are environmentally hazardous and residual toxic materials can affect the biocompatibility significantly. In this paper a simple, scalable, environmentally-friendly, microwave-assisted synthesis is described that results in conducting graphene/polycaprolactone composites that retain the processability and biocompatibility of the pristine polymer without introducing possibly hazardous reducing agents. Composites of polycaprolactone and graphene oxide were synthesised in a single step by the ring-opening polymerisation of ε-caprolactone in the presence of dispersed graphene oxide nanosheets under microwave irradiation. The graphene oxide provides a…

Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix

Scientific Reports 2014 Volume 4, Article number 6325

Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials’ surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β,…

Layered Gradient Nonwovens of In Situ Crosslinked Electrospun Collagenous Nanofibers Used as Modular Scaffold Systems for Soft Tissue Regeneration

Advanced Functional Materials 2013 Volume 23, Issue 26, Pages 3277-3285

In a versatile modular scaffold system, gradient nonwovens of in situ crosslinked gelatin nanofibers (CGN), fabricated by reactive electrospinning, are laminated with perforated layers and nonwovens of thermoplastic non-crosslinked biodegradable polyesters. The addition of glyoxal to a gelatin solution in a non-toxic solvent mixture consisting of acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and water (5:3:2 w/w/w) enables the in situ crosslinking of gelatin nanofibers during electrospinning. The use of this fluorine-free crosslinking system eliminates the need of post-treatment crosslinking and purification steps typical for conventional CGN scaffolds. The slowly progressing crosslinking of the dissolved gelatin in the presence of glyoxal increases the…

Biocompatibility analysis of an electrically-activated silver-based antibacterial surface system for medical device applications

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2013 Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 755-760

The costs associated with the treatment of medical device and surgical site infections are a major cause of concern in the global healthcare system. To prevent transmission of such infections, a prophylactic surface system that provides protracted release of antibacterial silver ions using low intensity direct electric current (LIDC; 28 μA system current at 6 V) activation has been recently developed. To ensure the safety for future in vivo studies and potential clinical applications, this study assessed the biocompatibility of the LIDC-activated interdigitated silver electrodes-based surface system; in vitro toxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and normal human…

Three-Dimensional Poly(ε-caprolactone) Bioactive Scaffolds with Controlled Structural and Surface Properties

Biomacromolecules 2012 Volume 13, Issue 11, Pages 3510-3521

The requirement of a multifunctional scaffold for tissue engineering capable to offer at the same time tunable structural properties and bioactive interface is still unpaired. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable polymeric (PCL) scaffolds with controlled morphology, macro-, micro-, and nano-mechanical performances endowed with bioactive moieties (RGD peptides) at the surface. Such result was obtained by a combination of rapid prototyping (e.g., 3D fiber deposition) and surface treatment approach (aminolysis followed by peptide coupling). By properly designing process conditions, a control over the mechanical and biological performances of the structure was achieved with a capability to tune the value of…

Development and Characterization of a Novel Hybrid Tissue Engineering-Based Scaffold for Spinal Cord Injury Repair

Tissue Engineering Part A 2010 Volume: 16 Issue 1, Pages 45-54

Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a significant health and social problem, and therefore it is vital to develop novel strategies that can specifically target it. In this context, the objective of the present work was to develop a new range of three-dimensional (3D) tubular structures aimed at inducing the regeneration within SCI sites. Up to six different 3D tubular structures were initially developed by rapid prototyping: 3D bioplotting–based on a biodegradable blend of starch. These structures were then further complemented by injecting Gellan Gum, a polysaccharide-based hydrogel, in the central area of structures. The mechanical properties of these structures were…

Fabrication of soft tissue engineering scaffolds by means of rapid prototyping techniques

Journal of Materials Science 2002 Volume 37, Issue 15, pp 3107-3116

Scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering because they enable the production of functional living implants out of cells obtained from cell culture. These scaffolds require individual external shape and well defined internal structure with interconnected porosity. The problem of the fabrication of prototypes from computer assisted design (CAD) data is well known in automotive industry. Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are able to produce such parts. Some RP techniques exist for hard tissue implants. Soft tissue scaffolds need a hydrogel material. No biofunctional and cell compatible processing for hydrogels exists in the area of RP. Therefore, a new rapid…

Rapid prototyping of scaffolds derived from thermoreversible hydrogels and tailored for applications in tissue engineering

Biomaterials 2002 Volume 23, Issue 23, Pages 4437-4447

In the year 2000 a new rapid prototyping (RP) technology was developed at the Freiburg Materials Research Center to meet the demands for desktop fabrication of scaffolds useful in tissue engineering. A key feature of this RP technology is the three-dimensional (3D) dispensing of liquids and pastes in liquid media. In contrast to conventional RP systems, mainly focused on melt processing, the 3D dispensing RP process (3D plotting) can apply a much larger variety of synthetic as well as natural materials, including aqueous solutions and pastes, to fabricate scaffolds for application in tissue engineering. For the first time, hydrogel scaffolds…