3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about PLGA (76 results)

Degradation behavior of polylactic-co-glycolic acid and polycaprolactone with nanosilver scaffolds

Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2023 Volume 140, Issue 44, Article e54664

Ureteral stents are commonly used in clinical treatment of ureteral diseases. There were a series of complications, such as biofilms and crusts caused by bacteria after surgery. Therefore, biodegradable with bacteriostatic ureteral scaffolds would be the potential to solve above mentioned problems. In this study, nanosilver (AgNP) was added to the polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) to prepare biodegradable antibacterial ureteral scaffold samples by 3D printing. The biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, degradability, and mechanical properties of samples were observed. The samples were under a strong inhibitory effect on both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the…

Three-Dimensional Printing of Cytocompatible, Thermally Conductive Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanocomposites

Nano Letters 2018 Volume 18, Issue 6, 3488-3493

Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a thermally conductive yet electrically insulating two-dimensional layered nanomaterial that has attracted significant attention as a dielectric for high-performance electronics in addition to playing a central role in thermal management applications. Here, we report a high-content hBN-polymer nanocomposite ink, which can be 3D printed to form mechanically robust, self-supporting constructs. In particular, hBN is dispersed in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and 3D printed at room temperature through an extrusion process to form complex architectures. These constructs can be 3D printed with a composition of up to 60% vol hBN (solids content) while maintaining high mechanical flexibility and…

Thermoelectric transport in bulk Ni fabricated via particle-based ink extrusion additive manufacturing

Early Career Materials Researcher Research Letter 2022 Volume 12, Pages 609–615

Bulk Ni samples were additively manufactured using particle-based ink extrusion. Three samples were characterized for thermoelectric transport properties including electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric figure of merit. Sample-to-sample deviations in transport were small but observable; these were attributed to stochastic porosity from the manufacturing method. Transport results were compared to previously published results in both porous and dense Ni, indicating that the salient features in the traditionally manufactured Ni samples are maintained in their additively manufactured counterparts. These results are offered as evidence of the feasibility of using particle-based ink extrusion additive manufacturing for thermoelectric applications.

Preclinical Safety of a 3D-Printed Hydroxyapatite-Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffold for Spinal Fusion

Spine 2022 Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 82-89

Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the host inflammatory response of our previously described hyperelastic, 3D-printed (3DP) hydroxyapatite (HA)-demineralized bone matrix (DBM) composite scaffold to the response elicited with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a preclinical rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model. Summary of Background Data. Our group previously found that this 3D-printed HA-DBM composite material shows promise as a bone graft substitute in a preclinical rodent model, but its safety profile had yet to be assessed. Methods. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral posterolateral intertransverse lumbar spinal fusion using with the following…

Enhanced bone regeneration by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and lipid microbubbles on PLGA/TCP 3D-printed scaffolds

BMC Biotechnology 2023 Volume 23, Article 13

Background To investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) combined with lipid microbubbles on the proliferation and bone regeneration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in poly (lactic-glycolic acid copolymer) (PLGA)/α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) 3D-printed scaffolds. Methods BMSCs were irradiated with different LIPUS parameters and microbubble concentrations, and the best acoustic excitation parameters were selected. The expression of type I collagen and the activity of alkaline phosphatase were detected. Alizarin red staining was used to evaluate the calcium salt production during osteogenic differentiation. Results BMSCs proliferation was the most significant under the condition of 0.5% (v/v) lipid microbubble concentration,…

Microstructure and mechanical properties of 3D ink-extruded CoCrCuFeNi microlattices

Acta Materialia 2022 Volume 238, Article 118187

Microlattices with orthogonal 0-90° architecture are 3D-extrusion printed from inks containing a blend of oxide powders (Co3O4, CuO, Fe2O3, and NiO) and metal powder (Cr). Equiatomic CoCrCuFeNi microlattices with ∼170 µm diameter struts are then synthesized by H2-reduction of the oxides followed by sintering and interdiffusion of the resulting metals. These process steps are studied by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction on single extruded microfilaments (lattice struts) with ∼250 µm diameter. After reduction and partial interdiffusion at 600 ˚C for 1 h under H2, filaments consist of lightly-sintered metallic particles with some unreduced Cr2O3. A reduced, nearly fully densified (porosity: 1.6 ± 0.7%)…

Magnesium oxide regulates the degradation behaviors and improves the osteogenesis of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) composite scaffolds

Composites Science and Technology 2022 Volume 222, Article 109368

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a star biodegradable polymer widely studied and applied in the biomedical field. Improving the acidic microenvironment caused by its degradation products and regulating its degradation behavior are still urgent scientific and technological problems to be solved. In this study, to regulate the degradation behaviors of PLGA and improve its bioactivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were incorporated into PLGA substrate in different proportions and a series of 3D-printing PLGA/HA/MgO (PHM) composite porous scaffolds were prepared. Then the physicochemical properties, degradation behaviors, in vitro and in vivo biological performance of fabricated scaffolds were systematically studied.…

The Effect of Argon Plasma Surface Treatment on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

Biomimetics 2022 Volume 7, Issue 4, Article 218

Nonunion bone fractures can impact the quality of life and represent a major economic burden. Scaffold-based tissue engineering has shown promise as an alternative to bone grafting. Achieving desirable bone reconstruction requires appropriate surface properties, together with optimizing the internal architecture of 3D scaffolds. This study presents the surface modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), collagen, and PLGA-collagen via an argon plasma treatment. Argon plasma can modify the surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials and improve in vivo integration. Solvent-cast films were prepared using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and characterized via differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle measurement, and critical surface tension analysis.…

3D bioprinting of multilayered scaffolds with spatially differentiated ADMSCs for rotator cuff tendon-to-bone interface regeneration

Applied Materials Today 2022 Volume 27, Article 101510

Regeneration of the gradient structure of the tendon-to-bone interface is still a significant clinical challenge. This study reports a novel therapeutic method combining three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting and melt electrospinning writing techniques to regenerate a functional tendon-to-bone interface. We generated biomimetic multilayered scaffolds with 3D-bioprinted pre-differentiated autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC), which recapitulated compositional and cellular structures of the interface. The hydrogel-based bioinks offered high cell viability and proliferative capability for rabbit ADMSCs. The hydrogels with pre-differentiated (into tenogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages) or undifferentiated rabbit ADMSCs were 3D-bioprinted into zonal-specific constructs to mimic the structure of the tendon-to-bone interface.…

Surface-Modified Polypyrrole-Coated PLCL and PLGA Nerve Guide Conduits Fabricated by 3D Printing and Electrospinning

Biomacromolecules 2022 Volume 23, Issue 11, Pages 4532-4546

The efficiency of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in repairing peripheral nerve injury is not high enough yet to be a substitute for autografts and is still insufficient for clinical use. To improve this efficiency, 3D electrospun scaffolds (3D/E) of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were designed and fabricated by the combination of 3D printing and electrospinning techniques, resulting in an ideal porous architecture for NGCs. Polypyrrole (PPy) was deposited on PLCL and PLGA scaffolds to enhance biocompatibility for nerve recovery. The designed pore architecture of these “PLCL-3D/E” and “PLGA-3D/E” scaffolds exhibited a combination of nano- and microscale structures. The mean…

Microstructure evolution during reduction and sintering of 3D-extrusion-printed Bi2O3+TeO2 inks to form Bi2Te3

Acta Materialia 2021 Volume 221, Article 117422

As an alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing, 3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing is studied here for thermoelectric Bi2Te3, starting from Bi2O3+TeO2 oxide precursor powders. In situ synchrotron XRD in flowing H2 at elevated temperatures reveals the complex phase evolution upon co-reduction leading to the formation of Bi2Te3, Bi2TeO5 and Bi2TeO2. Sintering trials performed using optimal temperatures identified by in situ XRD show that low heating rates and extensive holding times are required to achieve full co-reduction to pure Bi2Te3. The formation of liquid Bi at the temperatures required for oxide reduction leads to local transient-liquid-phase sintering, creating a coarse-grained porous structure.…

Gas Phase Alloying and Sintering Kinetics of 3D Printed Ni-Based Structures

Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati 2021
S. Khodabakhsh

Porous materials, including foams and lattice structures, are used in many applications such as biomedical implants, heat exchangers, catalysts, and batteries due to their light weight, high surface area and energy absorption properties. Lattice structures, specifically, are of great interest since their properties can be tailored by employing various design methodologies (e.g., topology optimization). On the other hand, Ni-based superalloys are used in many applications where high-temperature and oxidation/corrosion resistance are important such as in gas turbine components. The advantageous properties of these Ni-Cr-Al-based alloys with the geometry and tailored mechanical properties of lattice structures can be combined through a…

In situ loading and x-ray diffraction quantification of strains in hydroxyapatite particles within a 3D printed scaffold

Materialia 2021 Volume 18, Article 101174

A 3D printed scaffold consisting of a composite with very high volume fraction of particulate hydroxyapatite (hAp, 74 vol.%) and small volume fraction of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (26 vol.%) was loaded in compression, and the internal strains in the hAp phase were measured by high-energy x-ray diffraction. Diffraction patterns were recorded at multiple positions in the scaffold at cross-head displacements of 0, -0.52 and -0.62 mm (2.0 mm total scaffold height). The 00.2 and 21.0 hAp strains never exceeded 2 × 10−4, and most positions showed strains ≤ 1 × 10−4, which was the magnitude of the experimental uncertainty.

Thermoelectric Transport in Bulk Ni Fabricated via Particle-Based Ink Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

Master's thesis, University of Cincinnati 2021
C. D. M. Apel

Additive manufacturing is becoming an increasingly attractive method for the fabrication of devices in both industry applications and materials science research. Comparatively, conventional synthesis methods are often more time-intensive and provide geometric constraints. This is true for the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, where additive manufacturing is being further explored to improve cost and design flexibility. Currently, little work has been conducted on the direct effects between additive manufacturing fabrication methods and if or how thermoelectric transport properties are altered from these methods. This work focuses on the process development of constructing bulk Ni samples via particle-based ink extrusion printing, where…

Hierarchically-porous metallic scaffolds via 3D extrusion and reduction of oxide particle inks with salt space-holders

Additive Manufacturing 2021 Volume 37, Article 101637

3D ink-extrusion of powders followed by sintering is an emerging additive manufacturing method capable of creating metallic microlattices. Here, we study the creation of hierarchically porous Fe or Ni scaffolds by 3D extrusion of 0/90° lattices from inks consisting of fine oxide powders (Fe2O3 or NiO, < 3 µm), coarse space-holder particles (CuSO4, < 45 µm) and a polymer binder within a solvent. After space-holder leaching and debinding of the lattices, a sintering step densifies the metallic Fe or Ni powders created by oxide reduction with H2, while maintaining the larger pores templated by the space-holder particles within the printed…

High-temperature mechanical properties of γ/γ′ Co–Ni–W–Al superalloy microlattices

Scripta Materialia 2020 Volume 188, Pages 146-150

Cobalt-based superalloy microlattices were created via (i) three-dimensional-extrusion printing of inks containing a suspension of Co-, Ni- and W-oxide particles, (ii) H2-reduction of the oxides and sintering to a homogenous Co-Ni-W alloy, (iii) Al pack-cementation to deposit Al on the microlattice struts, followed by Al-homogenization. The resulting Co-(18–20)Ni-(5–6)W-(10–13)Al (at.%) microlattices, with 27–30% relative density and 350 μm diameter struts, display a peak in yield strength at 750°C, consistent with their γ/γ′ aged microstructure. Oxidation resistance is strongly improved compared to Al-free printed Co-Ni-W lattices, via the formation of an Al2O3 surface layer. However, the resulting Al depletion within the struts…

Microstructure and compressive properties of 3D-extrusion-printed, aluminized cobalt-based superalloy microlattices

Materials Science and Engineering: A 2021 Volume 815, Article 141262

Cobalt-based superalloy microlattices with γ/γ′ microstructure are manufactured by combining two additive methods: ink-extrusion 3D-printing and pack-cementation surface alloying. First, a microlattice green structure is 3D-printed at ambient temperature from inks comprised of Co3O4, NiO, and WO3 powders, an elastomeric binder and solvents. Organic removal followed by oxide reduction under Ar-5% H2, sintering and homogenization at 1250 °C lead to a metallic microlattice with dense struts with uniform γ (fcc)-Co–22Ni–8W (at.%) composition. Second, aluminum is deposited on the strut surfaces via pack-cementation at 1000 °C, diffused at 1300 °C through the strut volume to achieve a uniform composition (Co–20Ni–6W–10Al or…

Osteoinductivity and biomechanical assessment of a 3D printed demineralized bone matrix-ceramic composite in a rat spine fusion model

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 127, Pages 146-158

We recently developed a recombinant growth factor-free bone regenerative scaffold composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic particles and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles (HA-DBM). Here, we performed the first pre-clinical comparative evaluation of HA-DBM relative to the industry standard and established positive control, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model (PLF). Female Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral L4-L5 PLF with implantation of the HA-DBM scaffold or rhBMP-2. Fusion was evaluated using radiography and blinded manual palpation, while biomechanical testing quantified the segmental flexion-extension range-of-motion (ROM) and stiffness of the fused segments at 8-weeks postoperatively.…

Kinetics of alloy formation and densification in Fe-Ni-Mo microfilaments extruded from oxide- or metal-powder inks

Acta Materialia 2020 Volume 193, Pages 51-60

3D ink-extrusion of powders followed by sintering is an emerging alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing, capable of creating 3D metallic objects from 1D-extruded microfilaments. Here, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomography are combined to study the phase evolution, alloy formation and sinter-densification of Fe-20Ni-5Mo (at.%) microfilaments. The filaments are

Inclusion of a 3D-printed Hyperelastic Bone mesh improves mechanical and osteogenic performance of a mineralized collagen scaffold

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 121, Pages 224–236

Regenerative repair of craniomaxillofacial bone injuries is challenging due to both the large size and irregular shape of many defects. Mineralized collagen scaffolds have previously been shown to be a promising biomaterial implant to accelerate craniofacial bone regeneration in vivo. Here we describe inclusion of a 3D-printed polymer or ceramic-based mesh into a mineralized collagen scaffold to improve mechanical and biological activity. Mineralized collagen scaffolds were reinforced with 3D-printed Fluffy-PLG (ultraporous polylactide-co-glycolide co-polymer) or Hyperelastic Bone (90wt% calcium phosphate in PLG) meshes. We show degradation byproducts and acidic release from the printed structures have limited negative impact on the viability…

Influence of Geometry and Architecture on the In Vivo Success of 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering Part A 2021 Volume 27, Issue 1-2, Pages 26-36

We previously developed a recombinant growth factor-free, three-dimensional (3D)-printed material comprising hydroxyapatite (HA) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) for bone regeneration. This material has demonstrated the capacity to promote re-mineralization of the DBM particles within the scaffold struts and shows potential to promote successful spine fusion. Here, we investigate the role of geometry and architecture in osteointegration, vascularization, and facilitation of spine fusion in a preclinical model. Inks containing HA and DBM particles in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were 3D-printed into scaffolds with varying relative strut angles (90° vs. 45° advancing angle), macropore size (0 μm vs. 500 μm vs. 1000 μm), and strut…

3D-Printed Ceramic-Demineralized Bone Matrix Hyperelastic Bone Composite Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering: Part A 2020 Volume: 26 Issue 3-4, Pages 157-166

Although numerous spinal biologics are commercially available, a cost-effective and safe bone graft substitute material for spine fusion has yet to be proven. In this study, “3D-Paints” containing varying volumetric ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were three-dimensional (3D) printed into scaffolds to promote osteointegration in rats, with an end goal of spine fusion without the need for recombinant growth factor. Spine fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, and osteointegration and de novo bone formation within scaffold struts were evaluated by laboratory and synchrotron microcomputed tomography and histology. The 3:1 HA:DBM composite…

3D printing of multilayered scaffolds for rotator cuff tendon regeneration

Bioactive Materials 2020 Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 636-643

Repairing massive rotator cuff tendon defects remains a challenge due to the high retear rate after surgical intervention. 3D printing has emerged as a promising technique that enables the fabrication of engineered tissues with heterogeneous structures and mechanical properties, as well as controllable microenvironments for tendon regeneration. In this study, we developed a new strategy for rotator cuff tendon repair by combining a 3D printed scaffold of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with cell-laden collagen-fibrin hydrogels. We designed and fabricated two types of scaffolds: one featuring a separate layer-by-layer structure and another with a tri-layered structure as a whole. Uniaxial tensile tests…

Fiber engraving for bioink bioprinting within 3D printed tissue engineering scaffolds

Bioprinting 2020 Volume 18, Article e00076

In this work, we describe a new 3D printing methodology for the fabrication of multimaterial scaffolds involving the combination of thermoplastic extrusion and low temperature extrusion of bioinks. A fiber engraving technique was used to create a groove on the surface of a thermoplastic printed fiber using a commercial 3D printer and a low viscosity bioink was deposited into this groove. In contrast to traditional extrusion bioinks that rely on increased viscosity to prevent lateral spreading, this groove creates a defined space for bioink deposition. By physically constraining bioink spreading, a broader range of viscosities can be used. As proof-of-concept,…

Printability and Critical Insight into Polymer Properties during Direct-Extrusion Based 3D Printing of Medical Grade Polylactide and Copolyesters

Biomacromolecules 2020 Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 388-396

Various 3D printing techniques currently use degradable polymers such as aliphatic polyesters to create well-defined scaffolds. Even though degradable polymers are influenced by the printing process, and this subsequently affects the mechanical properties and degradation profile, degradation of the polymer during the process is not often considered. Degradable scaffolds are today printed and cell–material interactions evaluated without considering the fact that the polymer change while printing the scaffold. Our methodology herein was to vary the printing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and speed to define the relationship between printability, polymer microstructure, composition, degradation profile during the process, and rheological behavior.…

PLLA PCLA PLGA

Angiogenic effects of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with different scaffold materials

Microvascular Research 2020 Volume 127, Article 103925

Tissue survival in regenerative tissue engineering requires rapid vascularization, which is influenced by scaffold material and seeded cell selection. Poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are well-established biomaterials with angiogenic effects because of their material properties. Given the importance of the seeded cell type as a co-factor for vascularization, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have high angiogenic potential. We hypothesized that PLGA and β-TCP scaffolds seeded with MSCs would effectively induce a potent angiogenic response. Therefore, we studied the angiogenic effects after implanting PLGA and β-TCP scaffolds seeded with isogeneic MSCs in vivo. Fifty-six BALB/c mice were equally…

Effect of Polymer Binder on the Synthesis and Properties of 3D-Printable Particle-Based Liquid Materials and Resulting Structures

ACS Omega 2019 Volume 4, Issue 7, Pages 12088-12097

Recent advances have demonstrated the ability to 3D-print, via extrusion, solvent-based liquid materials (previously named 3D-Paints) which solidify nearly instantaneously upon deposition and contain a majority by volume of solid particulate material. In prior work, the dissolved polymer binder which enables this process is a high molecular weight biocompatible elastomer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). We demonstrate in this study an expansion of this solvent-based 3D-Paint system to two additional, less-expensive, and less-specialized polymers, polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer binder used within the 3D-Paint was shown to significantly affect the as-printed and thermal postprocessing behavior of printed structures. This…

The application of BMP-12-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells loaded 3D-printed PLGA scaffolds in rabbit rotator cuff repair

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2019 Volume 138, Pages 79-88

This study investigates if the application of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) loaded 3D-printed scaffolds could improve rotator cuff repair. The polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D print technology. Rabbit BM-MSCs were transfected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding bone morphogenic protein 12 (BMP-12). The effect of BM-MSCs loaded PLGA scaffolds on tendon-bone healing was assessed by biomechanical testing and histological analysis in a rabbit rotator cuff repair model. We found that the PLGA scaffolds had good biocompatible and biodegradable property. Overexpression of BMP-12 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tenogenic genes in BM-MSCs cultured with DMEM…

3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing of CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy micro-lattices

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article number: 904

Additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys combines the mechanical properties of this novel family of alloys with the geometrical freedom and complexity required by modern designs. Here, a non-beam approach to additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys is developed based on 3D extrusion of inks containing a blend of oxide nanopowders (Co3O4 + Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + NiO), followed by co-reduction to metals, inter-diffusion and sintering to near-full density CoCrFeNi in H2. A complex phase evolution path is observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction in extruded filaments when the oxide phases undergo reduction and the resulting metals inter-diffuse, ultimately forming face-centered-cubic equiatomic CoCrFeNi alloy. Linked to the phase evolution…

Novel Strategy to Accelerate Bone Regeneration of Calcium Phosphate Cement by Incorporating 3D Plotted Poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic acid) Network and Bioactive Wollastonite

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2019 Volume 8, Issue 9, Article 1801325

Inefficient bone regeneration of self‐hardening calcium phosphate cement (CPC) increases the demand for interconnected macropores and osteogenesis‐stimulated substances. It remains a challenge to fabricate porous CPC with interconnected macropores while maintaining its advantages, such as plasticity. Herein, pastes containing CPC and wollastonite (WS) are infiltrated into a 3D plotted poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic acid) (PLGA) network to fabricate plastic CPC‐based composite cement (PLGA/WS/CPC). The PLGA/WS/CPC recovers the plasticity of CPC after being heated above the glass transition temperature of PLGA. The presence of the 3D PLGA network significantly increases the flexibility of CPC in prophase and generates 3D interconnected macropores in situ upon…

Development of 3D-printed PLGA/TiO2 nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019 Volume 96, Pages 105-113

Porous scaffolds were 3D-printed using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/TiO2 composite (10:1 weight ratio) for bone tissue engineering applications. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improved the compressive modulus of scaffolds. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed an increase in both glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition onset of the composite compared to pure PLGA. Furthermore, addition of TiO2 was found to enhance the wettability of the surface evidenced by reducing the contact angle from 90.5 ± 3.2 to 79.8 ± 2.4 which is in favor of cellular attachment and activity. The obtained results revealed that PLGA/TiO2 scaffolds significantly improved osteoblast proliferation compared to…

Microstructure and porosity evolution during sintering of Ni-Mn-Ga wires printed from inks containing elemental powders

Intermetallics 2019 Volume 104, Pages 113-123

Ni-29Mn-21.5Ga (at. %) wires are fabricated via a combination of (i) extrusion of liquid inks containing a binder, solvents, and elemental Ni, Mn, and Ga powders and (ii) heat treatments to remove the polymer binder and to interdiffuse and sinter the powders. To study the microstructural evolution, sintering mechanisms, and grain growth in these wires, both ex situ metallography and in situ X-Ray tomography were conducted while sintering at 800–1050 °C for up to 4 h. After debinding, Ga-rich regions melt and induce transient liquid phase sintering of the surrounding Ni and Mn powders, resulting in localized swelling of the wires and…

Precision lattice parameter determination from transmission diffraction of thick specimens with irregular cross sections

Journal of Applield Crystallography 2019 Volume 52, Pages 40-46

Accurate determination of lattice parameters from X-ray diffraction requires that the diffraction angles be measured very precisely, and significant errors result if the sample–detector separation differs from that assumed. Transmission diffraction from bones, which have a complex cross section and must be left intact, is a situation where this separation is difficult to measure and it may differ from position to position across the specimen. This article describes a method for eliminating the effect of variable sample cross section. Diffraction patterns for each position on the specimen are collected before and after 180° rotation about an axis normal to the…

3D extruded composite thermoelectric threads for flexible energy harvesting

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article 5590

Whereas the rigid nature of standard thermoelectrics limits their use, flexible thermoelectric platforms can find much broader applications, for example, in low-power, wearable energy harvesting for internet-of-things applications. Here we realize continuous, flexible thermoelectric threads via a rapid extrusion of 3D-printable composite inks (Bi2Te3 n- or p-type micrograins within a non-conducting polymer as a binder) followed by compression through a roller-pair, and we demonstrate their applications in flexible, low-power energy harvesting. The thermoelectric power factors of these threads are enhanced up to 7 orders-of-magnitude after lateral compression, principally due to improved conductivity resulting from reduced void volume fraction and partial…

3D Printing Bioactive PLGA Scaffolds Using DMSO as a Removable Solvent

Bioprinting 2018 Volume 10, June 2018, Article e00038

Present bioprinting techniques lack the methodology to print with bioactive materials that retain their biological functionalities. This constraint is due to the fact that extrusion-based printing of synthetic polymers is commonly performed at very high temperatures in order to achieve desired mechanical properties and printing resolutions. Consequently, current methodology prevents printing scaffolds embedded with bioactive molecules, such as growth factors. With the wide use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine research, the integration of growth factors into 3D printed scaffolds is critical because it can allow for inducible MSC differentiation. We have successfully incorporated growth factors into extrusion…

Voltaglue Bioadhesives Energized with Interdigitated 3D‐Graphene Electrodes

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2018 Volume 7, Issue 21, Article 1800538

Soft tissue fixation of implant and bioelectrodes relies on mechanical means (e.g., sutures, staples, and screws), with associated complications of tissue perforation, scarring, and interfacial stress concentrations. Adhesive bioelectrodes address these shortcomings with voltage cured carbene‐based bioadhesives, locally energized through graphene interdigitated electrodes. Electrorheometry and adhesion structure activity relationships are explored with respect to voltage and electrolyte on bioelectrodes synthesized from graphene 3D‐printed onto resorbable polyester substrates. Adhesive leachates effects on in vitro metabolism and human‐derived platelet‐rich plasma response serves to qualitatively assess biological response. The voltage activated bioadhesives are found to have gelation times of 60 s or less…

Heparin/Poly-L-lysine-coated 3D-printed PLGA scaffolds as drug carriers for local immune modulation in bone regeneration

Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting and Exposition 2018 Presentation 584

Immune responses after injury play a critical role in bone regeneration. Initiation of inflammation at early stages of repair triggers tissue formation and remodeling; however, uncontrolled inflammation underlies a catabolic effect on tissues as commonly seen in arthritis where inflammation breaks down tissues and hinders regeneration. Our ultimate goal is to design a novel approach on bone scaffolds for which biodegradable scaffolds are loaded with inflammatory cytokines for local immunomodulation as well as bone regeneration. We employed nanoparticles (NPs) composed of heparin (Hep) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) as cytokine drug carriers adhered on 3D-printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. The entire drug…

Response of hPDLSCs on 3D printed PCL/PLGA composite scaffolds in vitro

Molecular Medicine Reports 2018 Volume 18 Issue 2, Pages 1335-1344

Three‑dimensional printed (3DP) scaffolds have become an excellent resource in alveolar bone regeneration. However, selecting suitable printable materials remains a challenge. In the present study, 3DP scaffolds were fabricated using three different ratios of poly (ε‑caprolactone) (PCL) and poly‑lactic‑co‑glycolic acid (PLGA), which were 0.1PCL/0.9PLGA, 0.5PCL/0.5PLGA and 0.9PCL/0.1PLGA. The surface characteristics and degradative properties of the scaffolds, and the response of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) on the scaffolds, were assessed to examine the preferable ratio of PCL and PLGA for alveolar bone regeneration. The results demonstrated that the increased proportion of PLGA markedly accelerated the degradation, smoothed the surface…

Comparison of the degradation behavior of PLGA scaffolds in micro-channel, shaking, and static conditions

Biomicrofluidics 2018 Volume 12, Article 034106

Degradation of scaffolds is an important problem in tissue regeneration management. This paper reports a comparative study on degradation of the printed 3D poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold under three conditions, namely, micro-channel, incubator static, and incubator shaking in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. In the case of the micro-channel condition, the solution was circulated. The following attributes of the scaffold and the solution were measured, including the mass or weight loss, water uptake, morphological and structural changes, and porosity change of the scaffold and the pH value of the PBS solution. In addition, shear stress in the scaffold under…

PLGA Drug Release

Vascularization of Natural and Synthetic Bone Scaffolds

Cell transplantation 2018 Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1269–1280

Vascularization of engineered bone tissue is critical for ensuring its survival after implantation. In vitro pre-vascularization of bone grafts with endothelial cells is a promising strategy to improve implant survival. In this study, we pre-cultured human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs) on bone scaffolds for 3 weeks followed by seeding of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which produced a desirable environment for microvasculature formation. The sequential cell-seeding protocol was successfully applied to both natural (decellularized native bone, or DB) and synthetic (3D-printed Hyperelastic “Bone” scaffolds, or HB) scaffolds, demonstrating a comprehensive platform for developing natural and synthetic-based in vitro vascularized…

Microstructure and Processing of 3D Printed Tungsten Microlattices and Infiltrated W–Cu Composites

Advanced Engineering Materials 2018 Volume 20, Article 1800354

ungsten is of industrial relevance due its outstanding intrinsic properties (e.g., highest melting‐point of all elements) and therefore difficult to 3D‐print by conventional methods. Here, tungsten micro‐lattices are produced by room‐temperature extrusion‐based 3D‐printing of an ink comprising WO3–0.5%NiO submicron powders, followed by H2‐reduction and Ni‐activated sintering. The green bodies underwent isotropic linear shrinkage of ≈50% during the thermal treatment resulting in micro‐lattices, with overall 35–60% open‐porosity, consisting of 95–100% dense W–0.5%Ni struts having ≈80–300 μm diameter. Ball‐milling the powders and inks reduced the sintering temperature needed to achieve full densification from 1400 to 1200 °C and enabled the ink to be extruded…

3D-printing porosity: A new approach to creating elevated porosity materials and structures

Acta Biomaterialia 2018 Volume 72, Pages 94-109

We introduce a new process that enables the ability to 3D-print high porosity materials and structures by combining the newly introduced 3D-Painting process with traditional salt-leaching. The synthesis and resulting properties of three 3D-printable inks comprised of varying volume ratios (25:75, 50:50, 70:30) of CuSO4 salt and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), as well as their as-printed and salt-leached counterparts, are discussed. The resulting materials are comprised entirely of PLGA (F-PLGA), but exhibit porosities proportional to the original CuSO4 content. The three distinct F-PLGA materials exhibit average porosities of 66.6–94.4%, elastic moduli of 112.6-2.7 MPa, and absorbency of 195.7–742.2%. Studies with adult human mesenchymal…

Use of 3D Printing to Prototype a Custom Shape Memory Alloy Penile Prosthesis

The Journal of Urology 2018 Volume 197, Number, 4, Pages e313ff

Three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive printing is a new technology that allows for construction of complex shapes and designs outside the constraints of traditional manufacturing techniques. Traditional 3D printing was limited to thermosensitive plastics that have limited medical applications. Herein, we describe the application of a cutting edge process that allows for 3D printing of shape memory alloys (SMA) using inks of shape memory alloy powder. Using our previously described concept of a SMA penile prosthesis for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, we sought to construct an intracavernosal cylinder using 3D printing technology.

Sintering of micro-trusses created by extrusion-3D-printing of lunar regolith inks

Acta Astronautica 2018 Volume 143, Pages 1-8

The development of in situ fabrication methods for the infrastructure required to support human life on the Moon is necessary due to the prohibitive cost of transporting large quantities of materials from the Earth. Cellular structures, consisting of a regular network (truss) of micro-struts with ∼500 μm diameters, suitable for bricks, blocks, panels, and other load-bearing structural elements for habitats and other infrastructure are created by direct-extrusion 3D-printing of liquid inks containing JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant powders, followed by sintering. The effects of sintering time, temperature, and atmosphere (air or hydrogen) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and magnetic properties of…

Ni-Mn-Ga Micro-trusses via Sintering of 3D-printed Inks Containing Elemental Powders

Acta Materialia 2017 Volume 143, Pages 20-29

Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy (SMA) micro-trusses, suitable for high magnetic field induced strains and/or a large magnetocaloric effect, are created via a new additive manufacturing method combining (i) 3D-printing ∼400 μm struts with an ink containing a polymer binder and elemental Ni, Mn, and Ga powders, (ii) binder burn-out and metallic powder interdiffusion and homogenization to create the final alloy, and (iii) further sintering to increase strut density. Controlled amounts of hierarchical porosity, desirable to enable twinning in this polycrystalline alloy, are achieved: (i) continuous ∼450 μm channels between the printed Ni-Mn-Ga ∼300 μm diameter struts (after sintering) and…

3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution

Biofabrication 2017 Volume 9, Number 2, Article 024101

In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients.…

PLGA

Robust and Elastic Lunar and Martian Structures from 3D-Printed Regolith Inks

Scientific Reports 2017 Volume 7, Article number: 44931

Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume). Both LRS and MRS inks exhibit similar rheological and 3D-printing characteristics,…

Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

Advanced Engineering Materials 2016 Volume 19, Issue 11, Article 1600365

Inks comprised of metallic Fe or Ni powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered to form metallic cellular structures. Similar structures are created from Fe2O3 and NiO particle-based inks, with an additional hydrogen reduction step before sintering. All sintered structures exhibit 92–98% relative density within their struts, with neither cracking nor visible warping despite extensive volumetric shrinkage (≈70–80%) associated with reduction (for oxide powders) and sintering (for both metal and oxide powders). The cellular architectures, with overall relative densities of 32–49%, exhibit low stiffness (1–6 GPa, due to the particular architecture used), high…

Hyperelastic “bone”: A highly versatile, growth factor–free, osteoregenerative, scalable, and surgically friendly biomaterial

Science Translational Medicine 2016 Volume 8, Issue 358, Pages 358ra127

Despite substantial attention given to the development of osteoregenerative biomaterials, severe deficiencies remain in current products. These limitations include an inability to adequately, rapidly, and reproducibly regenerate new bone; high costs and limited manufacturing capacity; and lack of surgical ease of handling. To address these shortcomings, we generated a new, synthetic osteoregenerative biomaterial, hyperelastic “bone” (HB). HB, which is composed of 90 weight % (wt %) hydroxyapatite and 10 wt % polycaprolactone or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), could be rapidly three-dimensionally (3D) printed (up to 275 cm3/hour) from room temperature extruded liquid inks. The resulting 3D-printed HB exhibited elastic mechanical properties (~32…

Accelerated vascularization of tissue engineering constructs in vivo by preincubated co-culture of aortic fragments and osteoblasts

Biochemical Engineering Journal 2016 Volume 105, Part A, Pages 230–241

There is an urgent critical need for the development of clinically relevant tissue-engineered large bone substitutes that can promote early vascularization after transplantation. To promote rapid blood vessel growth in the engineered tissue, we preincubated aortic fragments, as well as, co-cultures of aortic fragments and osteoblast-like cells in matrigel-filled PLGA scaffolds before implantation into the dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice. Despite an acceptable and low inflammatory response, preincubated aortic fragments accelerate early angiogenesis of tissue-engineered constructs; the angiogenesis was found to occur faster than that observed in previous studies. Thus, the time-period for achieving a denser microvascular network could…

Periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells with protein-releasing scaffolds for cementum formation and integration on dentin surface

Connective Tissue Research 2016 Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 488-495

Purpose/Aim: Cementogenesis is a critical step in periodontal tissue regeneration given the essential role of cementum in anchoring teeth to the alveolar bone. This study is designed to achieve integrated cementum formation on the root surfaces of human teeth using growth factor–releasing scaffolds with periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Materials and methods: Human PDLSCs were sorted by CD146 expression, and characterized using CFU-F assay and induced multi-lineage differentiation. Polycaprolactone scaffolds were fabricated using 3D printing, embedded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7). After removing cementum on…

Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration

Biofabrication 2016 Volume 8, Number 2, 025003

Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF’s bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing…

Multi‐and mixed 3D‐printing of graphene‐hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2016 Volume 105, Issue 1, Pages 274–283

With the emergence of 3D-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (Hyperelastic Bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-Graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multi-material constructs, but that composite…

Three Dimensional Printing of High-Content Graphene Scaffolds for Electronic and Biomedical Applications

ACS Nano 2015 Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 4636–4648

The exceptional properties of graphene enable applications in electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and structural composites. Here we demonstrate a 3D printable graphene (3DG) composite consisting of majority graphene and minority polylactide-co-glycolide, a biocompatible elastomer, 3D-printed from a liquid ink. This ink can be utilized under ambient conditions via extrusion-based 3D printing to create graphene structures with features as small as 100 μm composed of as few as two layers (10 cm thick object). The resulting 3DG material is mechanically robust and flexible while retaining electrical conductivities greater than 800 S/m, an order of magnitude increase over previously reported 3D-printed carbon…

Decelerated vascularization in tissue-engineered constructs in association with diabetes mellitus in vivo

Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 2015 Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 855–864

Aims Rapid blood vessel ingrowth in transplanted tissue engineering constructs is the key factor for successful incorporation, but many potential patients who may use engineered tissues suffer from widespread diseases that limit the capacity of neovascularization (e.g. diabetes). Thus, in vivo vascularization analyses of tissue-engineered constructs in angiogenically affected organisms are required. Methods We therefore investigated the in vivo incorporation of collagen-coated and cell-seeded poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide scaffolds in diabetic B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J mice using repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy over a time period of two weeks. For this purpose, scaffolds were seeded with osteoblast-like or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and implanted into the…

Metallic Architectures from 3D‐Printed Powder‐Based Liquid Inks

Advanced Functional Materials 2015 Volume 25, Issue 45, Pages 6985–6995

A new method for complex metallic architecture fabrication is presented, through synthesis and 3D-printing of a new class of 3D-inks into green-body structures followed by thermochemical transformation into sintered metallic counterparts. Small and large volumes of metal-oxide, metal, and metal compound 3D-printable inks are synthesized through simple mixing of solvent, powder, and the biomedical elastomer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). These inks can be 3D-printed under ambient conditions via simple extrusion at speeds upwards of 150 mm s–1 into millimeter- and centimeter-scale thin, thick, high aspect ratio, hollow and enclosed, and multi-material architectures. The resulting 3D-printed green-bodies can be handled immediately, are…

Dielectric spectroscopy for monitoring human pancreatic islet differentiation within cell-seeded scaffolds in a perfusion bioreactor system

Analyst 2015 Volume 140, Issue 18, Pages 6295-6305

The long-term in vitro culture and differentiation of human pancreatic islets is still hindered by the inability to emulate a suitable microenvironment mimicking physiological extracellular matrix (ECM) support and nutrient/oxygen perfusion. This is further amplified by the current lack of a non-invasive and rapid monitoring system to readily evaluate cellular processes. In this study, we realized a viable method for non-invasively monitoring isolated human pancreatic islets in vitro. Islets are induced to dedifferentiate into proliferative duct-like structures (DLS) in preparation for potential and subsequent re-differentiation into functional islet-like structures (ILS) in a process reminiscent of islet regeneration strategies. This long-term…

Accelerating the early angiogenesis of tissue engineering constructs in vivo by the use of stem cells cultured in matrigel

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2014 Volume 102, Issue 6, Pages 1652–1662

In tissue engineering research, generating constructs with an adequate extent of clinical applications remains a major challenge. In this context, rapid blood vessel ingrowth in the transplanted tissue engineering constructs is the key factor for successful incorporation. To accelerate the microvascular development in engineered tissues, we preincubated osteoblast-like cells as well as mesenchymal stem cells or a combination of both cell types in Matrigel-filled PLGA scaffolds before transplantation into the dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice. By the use of preincubated mesenchymal stem cells, a significantly accelerated angiogenesis was achieved. Compared with previous studies that showed a decisive increase of…

Additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells and VEGF to vascularization of PLGA scaffolds

Microvascular Research 2013 Volume 90, Pages 71–79

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are widely used for the generation of tissue engineering constructs, since they can differentiate into different cell types occurring in bone tissues. Until now their use for the generation of tissue engineering constructs is limited. All cells inside a tissue engineering construct die within a short period of time after implantation of the construct because vascularization and establishment of connections to the recipient circulatory system is a time consuming process. We therefore compared the influences of bmMSC, VEGF and a combination of both on the early processes of vascularization, utilizing the mice skinfold…

Dielectric spectroscopy for non-invasive monitoring of epithelial cell differentiation within three-dimensional scaffolds

Physics in Medicine and Biology 2012 Volume 57, Number 16, Pages 5097ff

In this study, we introduce a cellular differentiation cellular model based on dielectric spectroscopy that characterizes epithelial differentiation processes. Non-invasive cellular monitoring was achieved within a three-dimensional microenvironment consisting of a cell-containing collagen I gel seeded onto microfabricated scaffolds. In this proof-of-concept investigation, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were cultured within microfabricated, geometrically controlled scaffolds and allowed us to differentiate to hollow cyst-like structures. This transformation within the three-dimensional environment is monitored and characterized through dielectric spectroscopy while maintaining cell culture in vitro.

Comparably accelerated vascularization by preincorporation of aortic fragments and mesenchymal stem cells in implanted tissue engineering constructs

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 97A, Issue 4, Pages 383-394

The demanding need for tissue replacement resulted in manifold approaches for the construction of different tissues. One common problem which hampers the clinical usage of tissue engineering constructs is a limited vascularization. In an attempt to accelerate the vascularization of tissue engineering constructs we compared the usage of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) and fragments derived from the aorta in vivo. Tissue engineering constructs composed of PLGA scaffolds containing Matrigel (n = 8), aortic fragments embedded in Matrigel (n = 8), bmMSCs embedded in Matrigel (n = 8), and aortic fragments embedded in Matrigel combined with bmMSCs (n =…

Hierarchical scaffold design for mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy of hemophilia B

Biomaterials 2011 Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 295-305

Gene therapy for hemophilia B and other hereditary plasma protein deficiencies showed great promise in pre-clinical and early clinical trials. However, safety concerns about in vivo delivery of viral vectors and poor post-transplant survival of ex vivo modified cells remain key hurdles for clinical translation of gene therapy. We here describe a 3D scaffold system based on porous hydroxyapatite-PLGA composites coated with biomineralized collagen 1. When combined with autologous gene-engineered factor IX (hFIX) positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and implanted in hemophilic mice, these scaffolds supported long-term engraftment and systemic protein delivery by MSCs in vivo. Optimization of the scaffolds…

Calvaria bone chamber-A new model for intravital assessment of osseous angiogenesis

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 99A, Issue 2, pages 151-157

The faith of tissue engineered bone replacing constructs depends on their early supply with oxygen and nutrients, and thus on a rapid vascularization. Although some models for direct observation of angiogenesis are described, none of them allows the observation of new vessel formation in desmal bone. Therefore, we developed a new chamber model suitable for quantitative in vivo assessment of the vascularization of bone substitutes by intravital fluorescence microscopy. In the parietal calvaria of 32 balb/c mice a critical size defect was set. Porous 3D-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-blocks were inserted into 16 osseous defects (groups 3 and 4) while other 16 osseous…

A Novel Approach for Studying Microcirculation in Bone Defects by Intravital Fluorescence Microscopy

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2011 Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 1151-1159

Angiogenic and inflammatory responses to biodegradable scaffolds were previously studied using the dorsal skinfold chamber for testing different scaffold materials. In this model, the angiogenic response originates from the soft tissue of the skin. Herein, we introduce a new model that allows the study of developing microcirculation of bone defects for testing tissue-engineered constructs. A bone defect was prepared in the femur of Balb/c mice by inserting a pin for intramedullary fixation, and a custom-made observation window fixed over the defect allowed constant observation. This study included three different groups: empty defect (control), defect filled with porous poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide), and beta-tricalcium-phosphate…

Comparison of bacterial adhesion and cellular proliferation on newly developed three-dimensional scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping technology

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 98A, Issue 2, pages 303-311

Scaffolds used in the field of tissue engineering should facilitate the adherence, spreading, and ingrowth of cells as well as prevent microbial adherence. For the first time, this study simultaneously deals with microbial and tissue cell adhesion to rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds. The cell growth of human osteosarcoma cells (CAL-72) over a time period of 3-11 days were examined on three scaffolds (PLGA, PLLA, PLLA-TCP) and compared to the adhesion of salivary microorganisms and representative germs of the oral flora (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell proliferation measurements, and…

Prolongated Survival of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Biodegradable Scaffolds by Heat Shock Preconditioning

Tissue Engineering Part A 2011 Volume 17, Issue 15-16, Pages 1935-1943

The implantation of tissue-engineered constructs leads to hypoxic and physical stress to the seeded cells until they were reached by a functional microvascular system. Preconditioning of cells with heat shock induced heat shock proteins, which can support the cells to survive a subsequent episode of stress that would otherwise be lethal. Preconditioning of tissue-engineered constructs resulted in significantly higher number of surviving osteoblast-like cells (OLC). At the 6th and 10th day, angiogenic response was found comparative to poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds vitalized with either unconditioned or preconditioned OLC. However, they were significantly enhanced compared with the nonvitalized collagen-labeled PLGA scaffolds. This…

Accelerated Angiogenic Host Tissue Response to Poly(L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Scaffolds by Vitalization with Osteoblast-like Cells

Tissue Engineering Part A 2010 Volume 16, Issue 7, Pages 2265-2279

Background: Bone substitutes should ideally promote rapid vascularization, which could be accelerated if these substitutes were vitalized by autologous cells. Although adequate engraftment of porous poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds has been demonstrated in the past, it has not yet been investigated how vascularization is influenced by vitalization or, more precisely, by seeding PLGA scaffolds with osteoblast-like cells (OLCs). For this reason, we conducted an in vivo study to assess host angiogenic and inflammatory responses after the implantation of PLGA scaffolds vitalized with isogeneic OLCs. Materials and Methods: OLCs were seeded on collagen-coated PLGA scaffolds that were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers…

Effects of VEGF loading on scaffold-confined vascularization

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2010 Volume 95A, Issue 3, Pages 783-792

Adequate vascularization of tissue-engineered constructs remains a major challenge in bone grafting. In view of this, we loaded ß-tricalcium-phosphate (ß-TCP) and porous poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds via collagen coating with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and studied whether the VEGF loading improves scaffold angiogenesis and vascularization. Dorsal skinfold chambers were implanted into 48 balb/c mice, which were assigned to 6 groups (n = 8 each). Uncoated (controls), collagen-coated, and additionally VEGF-loaded PLGA and ß-TCP scaffolds were inserted into the chambers. Angiogenesis, neovascularization, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction were analyzed repeatedly during a 14-day observation period using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, VEGF release…

Bone repair by cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted composite scaffolds made of collagen treated tricalciumphosphate or tricalciumphosphate-chitosan-collagen hydrogel or PLGA in ovine critical-sized calvarial defects

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2010 Volume 93B, Issue 2, Pages 520-530

The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of three different cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted scaffolds in a ovine calvarial critical-size defect model. The choice of scaffold-materials was based on their applicability for 3D-bioplotting and respective possibility to produce tailor-made scaffolds for the use in cranio-facial surgery for the replacement of complex shaped boneparts. Scaffold raw-materials are known to be osteoinductive when being cell-seeded [poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)] or having components with osteoinductive properties as tricalciumphosphate (TCP) or collagen (Col) or chitosan. The scaffold-materials PLGA, TCP/Col, and HYDR (TCP/Col/chitosan) were cell-seeded with osteoblast-like cells whether gained from bone (OLB) or from…

Consequences of seeded cell type on vascularization of tissue engineering constructs in vivo

Microvascular Research 2009 Volume 78, Issue 2, Pages 180-190

Implantation of tissue engineering constructs is a promising technique to reconstruct injured tissue. However, after implantation the nutrition of the constructs is predominantly restricted to vascularization. Since cells possess distinct angiogenic potency, we herein assessed whether scaffold vitalization with different cell types improves scaffold vascularization. 32 male balb/c mice received a dorsal skinfold chamber. Angiogenesis, microhemodynamics, leukocyte–endothelial cell interaction and microvascular permeability induced in the host tissue after implantation of either collagen coated poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds (group 4), additionally seeded with osteoblast-like cells (OLCs, group 1), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs, group 2) or a combination of OLCs…

Incorporation of growth factor containing Matrigel promotes vascularization of porous PLGA scaffolds

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2008 Volume 85A, Issue 2, Pages 397-407

In tissue engineering, rapid ingrowth of blood vessels into scaffolds is a major prerequisite for the survival of three-dimensional tissue constructs. In the present study, we investigated whether the vascularization of implanted poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds may be accelerated by incorporation of Matrigel. For this purpose, we investigated in the aortic ring assay the proangiogenic properties of growth factor reduced Matrigel (GFRM) and growth factor containing Matrigel (GFCM), which were then incorporated into the pores of PLGA scaffolds. Subsequently, we analyzed vascularization, biocompatibility, and incorporation of these scaffolds during 14 days after implantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice…

Improvement of Vascularization of PLGA Scaffolds by Inosculation of In Situ-Preformed Functional Blood Vessels With the Host Microvasculature

Annals of Surgery 2008 Volume 248 - Issue 6 - Pages 939-948

Objective: We analyzed, in vivo, whether the establishment of blood supply to implanted scaffolds can be accelerated by inosculation of an in situ-preformed microvascular network with the host microvasculature. Background: A rapid vascularization is crucial for the survival of scaffold-based transplanted tissue constructs. Methods: Poly-lactic-glycolic acid scaffolds were implanted into the flank of balb/c or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice for 20 days to create in situ a new microvascular network within the scaffolds. The prevascularized scaffolds were then transferred into the dorsal skinfold chamber of isogeneic recipient mice. Nonvascularized poly-lactic-glycolic acid scaffolds served as controls. Vascularization, blood perfusion, and…

Bacterial and Candida albicans adhesion on rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds manufactured as bone replacement materials

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2008 Volume 87A, Issue 4, pages 933-943

Rapid prototyping (RP)-produced scaffolds aregaining increasing importance in scaffold-guided tissueengineering. Microbial adhesion on the surface of replacement materials has a strong influence on healing and long-term outcome. Consequently, it is important to examine the adherence of microorganisms on RP-produced scaffolds. This research focussed on manufacturing of scaffolds by 3D-bioplotting and examination of their microbial adhesion characteristics. Tricalciumphosphate (TCP), calcium/sodium alginate, and poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) constructs were produced and used to study the adhesion of dental pathogens. Six oral bacterial strains, one Candida strain and human saliva were used for the adhesion studies. The number of colony forming units (CFU) were…

Comparative in vitro study of the cell proliferation of ovine and human osteoblast‐like cells on conventionally and rapid protot yping produced scaffolds tailored for application as potential bone replacement material

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2007 Volume 83A, Issue 4, pages 1154-1164

Reconstruction of bone defects in the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery is a relevant problem. In regenerative medicine, autologous bone is not available sufficiently. The full replacement of autologous bone grafts is required. A promising research field is the bone engineering. Especially the application of rapid prototyping (RP) enables new perspectives concerning the scaffold design. The aim of the study was to compare scaffolds produced by RP-technology (native and plasma-coated PLGA-scaffolds) with conventionally produced scaffolds (agar plates with hydroxyapatite and hyaluronic acid coated agar plates with hydroxyapatite) relating to proliferation, adhesion, and morphology of osteoblasts to get knowledge about the application…

Angiogenic and inflammatory response to biodegradable scaffolds in dorsal skinfold chambers of mice

Biomaterials 2006 Volume 27, Issue 29, Pages 5027-5038

For tissue engineering, scaffolds should be biocompatible and promote neovascularization. Because little is known on those specific properties, we herein studied in vivo the host angiogenic and inflammatory response after implantation of commonly used scaffold materials. Porous poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and collagen–chitosan–hydroxyapatite hydrogel scaffolds were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice. Additional animals received cortical bone as an isogeneic, biological implant, while chambers of animals without implants served as controls. Angiogenesis and neovascularization as well as leukocyte–endothelial cell interaction and microvascular permeability were analyzed over 14 day using intravital fluorescence microscopy. PLGA scaffolds showed a slight increase in leukocyte…

Fabrication of soft and hard biocompatible scaffolds using 3D-Bioplotting

Virtual Modelling and Rapid Manufacturing-Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping 2005 London, England: Taylor & Francis Group, 97-102

In Tissue Engineering and bone reconstruction, alongside the choice of materials, the scaffold design is of great importance. Three dimensional structures not only permit the tuning of chemical and mechanical properties, but they can also copy the outer form of the required bone or cartilaginous structures. While new processes that create such 3D scaffolds by means of Rapid Prototyping have been developed, they are still restricted to a limited type of materials. At the Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum, our group has developed a new process called 3D BioplottingTM. Most kinds of polymers and biopolymers can be used for the fabrication of 3D…