3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about Imaging (18 results)

Low-density tissue scaffold imaging by synchrotron radiation propagation-based imaging computed tomography with helical acquisition mode

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 2023 Volume 30, Pages 417-429

Visualization of low-density tissue scaffolds made from hydro­gels is important yet challenging in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). For this, synchrotron radiation propagation-based imaging computed tomography (SR-PBI-CT) has great potential, but is limited due to the ring artifacts commonly observed in SR-PBI-CT images. To address this issue, this study focuses on the integration of SR-PBI-CT and helical acquisition mode (i.e. SR-PBI-HCT) to visualize hydro­gel scaffolds. The influence of key imaging parameters on the image quality of hydro­gel scaffolds was investigated, including the helical pitch (p), photon energy (E) and the number of acquisition projections per rotation/revolution (Np), and, on…

Quantum dots-labeled polymeric scaffolds for in vivo tracking of degradation and tissue formation

Bioactive Materials 2022 Volume 16, Pages 285-292

The inevitable gap between in vitro and in vivo degradation rate of biomaterials has been a challenging factor in the optimal designing of scaffold’s degradation to be balanced with new tissue formation. To enable non-/minimum-invasive tracking of in vivo scaffold degradation, chemical modifications have been applied to label polymers with fluorescent dyes. However, the previous approaches may have limited expandability due to complicated synthesis processes. Here, we introduce a simple and efficient method to fluorescence labeling of polymeric scaffolds via blending with near-infrared (NIR) quantum dots (QDs), semiconductor nanocrystals with superior optical properties. QDs-labeled, 3D-printed PCL scaffolds showed promising efficiency…

A Refined Hot Melt Printing Technique with Real-Time CT Imaging Capability

Micromachines 2022 Volume 13, Issue 10, Article 1794

Personalised drug delivery systems with the ability to offer real-time imaging and control release are an advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This allows for a tailored drug dosage specific to the patient with a release profile that offers the optimum therapeutic effect. Coupling this application with medical imaging capabilities, real-time contrast can be viewed to display the interaction with the host. Current approaches towards such novelty produce a drug burst release profile and contrasting agents associated with side effects as a result of poor encapsulation of these components. In this study, a 3D-printed drug delivery matrix with real-time imaging…

An investigation into the relationship between inhomogeneity and wave shapes in phantoms and ex vivo skeletal muscle using Magnetic Resonance Elastography and finite element analysis

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 2019 Volume 98, Pages 108-120

Soft biological tissues such as skeletal muscle and brain white matter can be inhomogeneous and anisotropic due to the presence of fibers. Unlike biological tissue, phantoms with known microstructure and defined mechanical properties enable a quantitative assessment and systematic investigation of the influence of inhomogeneities on the nature of shear wave propagation. This study introduces a mathematical measure for the wave shape, which the authors call as the 1-Norm, to determine the conditions under which homogenization may be a valid approach. This is achieved through experimentation using the Magnetic Resonance Elastography technique on 3D printed inhomogeneous fiber phantoms as well…

Quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell-laden hydrogels and printed constructs

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 91, Pages 173-185

In the present work we have revisited the application of quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) to cellular hydrogels, by using the reference phantom method (RPM) in combination with a local attenuation compensation algorithm. The investigated biological samples consisted of cell-laden collagen hydrogels with PC12 neural cells. These cell-laden hydrogels were used to calibrate the integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) as a function of cell density, which was then used to generate parametric images of local cell density. The image resolution used for QUI and its impact on the relative IBC error was also investigated. Another important contribution of our work was the…

Anisotropic composite material phantom to improve skeletal muscle characterization using magnetic resonance elastography

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 2019 Volume 89, Pages 199-208

The presence and progression of neuromuscular pathology, including spasticity, Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy and hyperthyroidism, has been correlated with changes in the intrinsic mechanical properties of skeletal muscle tissue. Tools for noninvasively measuring and monitoring these properties, such as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE), could benefit basic research into understanding neuromuscular pathologies, as well as translational research to develop therapies, by providing a means of assessing and tracking their efficacy. Dynamic elastography methods for noninvasive measurement of tissue mechanical properties have been under development for nearly three decades. Much of the technological development to date, for both Ultrasound (US)-based and Magnetic Resonance…

Gelatin Imaging

Precision lattice parameter determination from transmission diffraction of thick specimens with irregular cross sections

Journal of Applield Crystallography 2019 Volume 52, Pages 40-46

Accurate determination of lattice parameters from X-ray diffraction requires that the diffraction angles be measured very precisely, and significant errors result if the sample–detector separation differs from that assumed. Transmission diffraction from bones, which have a complex cross section and must be left intact, is a situation where this separation is difficult to measure and it may differ from position to position across the specimen. This article describes a method for eliminating the effect of variable sample cross section. Diffraction patterns for each position on the specimen are collected before and after 180° rotation about an axis normal to the…

Anisotropic Composite Material Phantom Tested Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Tissue Elasticity Conference 2018 Page 22

Background: The presence and progression of neuromuscular pathologies, including spasticity, dystrophy and hyperthyroidism, have been correlated with changes in the intrinsic mechanical properties of skeletal muscle tissue. Tools of noninvasively measuring and monitoring these properties, such as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE), could benefit basic research into understanding neuromuscular pathologies, as well as translational research to develop therapies, by providing a means of assessing and tracking their efficacy. While various approaches have been proposed in the literature [1,2], there is not yet an accepted standard for the identification of the mechanical properties of anisotropic and viscoelastic tissues through MRE; advances in…

Gelatin Imaging

Stable gelatin-based phantom materials with tunable x-ray attenuation properties and 3D printability for x-ray imaging

Physics in Medicine & Biology 2018 Volume 63, Number 9, Article 09NT01

We report a novel method for developing gelatin-based phantom materials for transmission x-ray imaging with high stability at room temperature and tunable x-ray attenuation properties. This is achieved by efficiently cross-linking gelatin in a glycerin solution with only 10% water by volume and systematically decreasing their x-ray attenuation coefficients by doping with microbubbles that are originally designed to be used as lightweight additives for paints and crack fillers. For demonstration, we mimic breast glandular and adipose tissues by using such gelatin materials and also study the feasibility of 3D printing them based on the extrusion-based technique. Results from x-ray spectroscopy…

Imaging stem cell distribution, growth, migration, and differentiation in 3-D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesoscopic fluorescence tomography

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2017 Volume 115, Issue 1, Pages 257-265

Regenerative medicine has emerged as an important discipline that aims to repair injury or replace damaged tissues or organs by introducing living cells or functioning tissues. Successful regenerative medicine strategies will likely depend upon a simultaneous optimization strategy for the design of biomaterials, cell-seeding methods, cell-biomaterial interactions and molecular signaling within the engineered tissues. It remains a challenge to image three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the cell-seeded scaffold in mesoscopic scale (>2∼3 mm). In this study, we utilized angled fluorescence laminar optical tomography (aFLOT), which allows depth-resolved molecular characterization of engineered tissues in 3-D to investigate cell viability, migration and…

Potential of propagation-based synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography for cardiac tissue engineering

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 2017 Volume 24, Pages 842-853

Hydro­gel-based cardiac tissue engineering offers great promise for myocardial infarction repair. The ability to visualize engineered systems in vivo in animal models is desired to monitor the performance of cardiac constructs. However, due to the low density and weak X-ray attenuation of hydro­gels, conventional radiography and micro-computed tomography are unable to visualize the hydro­gel cardiac constructs upon their implantation, thus limiting their use in animal systems. This paper presents a study on the optimization of synchrotron X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast imaging computed tomography (PCI-CT) for three-dimensional (3D) visualization and assessment of the hydro­gel cardiac patches. First, alginate hydro­gel was 3D-printed into…

Remote Determination of Time-Dependent Stiffness of Surface-Degrading-Polymer Scaffolds Via Synchrotron-Based Imaging

Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 2017 Volume 139, Issue 4, Article 041004

Surface-degrading polymers have been widely used to fabricate scaffolds with the mechanical properties appropriate for tissue regeneration/repair. During their surface degradation, the material properties of polymers remain approximately unchanged, but the scaffold geometry and thus mechanical properties vary with time. This paper presents a novel method to determine the time-dependent mechanical properties, particularly stiffness, of scaffolds from the geometric changes captured by synchrotron-based imaging, with the help of finite element analysis (FEA). Three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds were fabricated from surface-degrading polymers, and during their degradation, the tissue scaffolds were imaged via the synchrotron-based imaging to characterize their changing geometry. On…

PCL Imaging

Traditional invasive and synchrotron-based non-invasive assessments of 3D-printed hybrid cartilage constructs

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2017 Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 156-168

Three-dimensional (3D)-printed constructs made of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte-impregnated alginate hydrogel (hybrid cartilage constructs) mimic the biphasic nature of articular cartilage, offering promise for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications. However, the regulatory pathway for medical device development requires validation of such constructs through in vitro bench tests and in vivo preclinical examinations premarket approval. Furthermore, non-invasive imaging techniques are required for effective evaluation of the progress of these cartilage constructs, especially when implanted in animal models or human subjects. However, characterization of the individual components of the hybrid cartilage constructs and their associated time-dependent structural changes by currently available non-invasive…

Low-dose phase-based X-ray imaging techniques for in situ soft tissue engineering assessments

Biomaterials 2016 Volume 82, Pages 151–167

In tissue engineering, non-invasive imaging of biomaterial scaffolds and tissues in living systems is essential to longitudinal animal studies for assessments without interrupting the repair process. Conventional X-ray imaging is inadequate for use in soft tissue engineering due to the limited absorption difference between the soft tissue and biomaterial scaffolds. X-ray phase-based imaging techniques that derive contrast from refraction or phase effects rather than absorption can provide the necessary contrast to see low-density biomaterial scaffolds and tissues in large living systems. This paper explores and compares three synchrotron phase-based X-ray imaging techniques—computed tomography (CT)-diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), -analyzer based imaging…

Synchrotron-Based in Situ Characterization of the Scaffold Mass Loss from Erosion Degradation

Journal of Functional Biomaterials 2016 Volume 7, Issue 3, 17

The mass loss behavior of degradable tissue scaffolds is critical to their lifespan and other degradation-related properties including mechanical strength and mass transport characteristics. This paper presents a novel method based on synchrotron imaging to characterize the scaffold mass loss from erosion degradation in situ, or without the need of extracting scaffolds once implanted. Specifically, the surface-eroding degradation of scaffolds in a degrading medium was monitored in situ by synchrotron-based imaging; and the time-dependent geometry of scaffolds captured by images was then employed to estimate their mass loss with time, based on the mathematical model that was adopted from the…

PCL Imaging

Using synchrotron radiation inline phase-contrast imaging computed tomography to visualize three-dimensional printed hybrid constructs for cartilage tissue engineering

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 2016 Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 802-812

Synchrotron radiation inline phase-contrast imaging combined with computed tomography (SR-inline-PCI-CT) offers great potential for non-invasive characterization and three-dimensional visualization of fine features in weakly absorbing materials and tissues. For cartilage tissue engineering, the biomaterials and any associated cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted over time are difficult to image using conventional absorption-based imaging techniques. For example, three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate/cell hybrid constructs have low, but different, refractive indices and thicknesses. This paper presents a study on the optimization and utilization of inline-PCI-CT for visualizing the components of three-dimensional printed PCL/alginate/cell hybrid constructs for cartilage tissue engineering. First, histological analysis…

Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling

Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 2015 Volume 137, Issue 8, Article 081004

In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold’s mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly.…

PDMS Imaging

Computed Tomography Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for In Situ Visualization of Tissue Scaffolds Implanted in Cartilage

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2014 Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 140-148

Long-term in vivo studies on animal models and advances from animal to human studies should rely on noninvasive monitoring methods. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has shown great promise as a noninvasive method for visualizing native and/or engineered tissues and bio-microstructures with appreciable details in situ. The objective of this study was to investigate SR-DEI for in situ visualization and characterization of tissue-engineered scaffolds implanted in cartilage. A piglet stifle joint implanted with an engineered scaffold made from poly-ɛ-caprolactone was imaged using SR computed tomography (CT)-DEI at an X-ray energy of 40 keV. For comparison, in situ visualization was also…