3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about PEG (13 results)

Three‑Dimensional Printing of Repaglinide Tablets: Effect of Perforations on Hypromellose‑Based Drug Release

Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation 2022

Purpose Drug release from hypromellose-based tablets involves the formation of characteristic dry cores surrounded by outer gel layers in aqueous media. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of perforation sizes on the dissolution of repaglinide from three-dimensionally (3D) printed tablets with two viscosity grades of hypromellose as rate-controlling polymer. Methods Printing pastes of appropriate consistency were developed and fed into a bioplotter cartridge to extrude strands/filaments. Tablets were printed in a crisscross pattern with 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 mm of inter-strand distances. Printed tablets were characterized and repaglinide dissolution data were evaluated mathematically. Results Scanning electron…

The Effect of Argon Plasma Surface Treatment on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

Biomimetics 2022 Volume 7, Issue 4, Article 218

Nonunion bone fractures can impact the quality of life and represent a major economic burden. Scaffold-based tissue engineering has shown promise as an alternative to bone grafting. Achieving desirable bone reconstruction requires appropriate surface properties, together with optimizing the internal architecture of 3D scaffolds. This study presents the surface modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), collagen, and PLGA-collagen via an argon plasma treatment. Argon plasma can modify the surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials and improve in vivo integration. Solvent-cast films were prepared using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and characterized via differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle measurement, and critical surface tension analysis.…

3D printing of gelatin/chitosan biodegradable hybrid hydrogel: Critical issues due to the crosslinking reaction, degradation phenomena and process parameters

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 24, Article e00170

Hydrogel materials are being investigated for application as scaffolds in tissue engineering owing to their many advantages, such as high water content, softness and flexibility similar to many soft tissues, tuneable physical, chemical, and biological properties, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and extensive framework for cell proliferation and survival. During the past decade, because of the great versatility offered in terms of processing approach, material selection, and customization, 3D printing has become a leading technology used to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds. Furthermore, high reproducibility and unparalleled control over structural and compositional characteristics make additive manufacturing the preferred technology for the fabrication of…

3D printed hydrogels for oral personalized medicine

Universidad del Pais Vasco, Thesis 2021

3D printing has become a promising and revolutionary pill-making technique for the pharmaceutical industry, enabling a relatively low-cost personalized medicine. Fused deposition modelling, also known by its initials FDM, is the most affordable technology for this goal, printing the material by a layer-by-layer deposition. However, the pressure assisted microsyringe technique is more adequate for working with drug containing inks as it does not need high temperatures, preventing the drug degradation. However, to make this goal possible, high accuracy and reproducibility is required, avoiding trial and error procedures. Thus, a correlation between rheology, printing parameters and the printed object was investigated.…

Cultivation of hierarchical 3D scaffolds inside a perfusion bioreactor: scaffold design and finite-element analysis of fluid flow

SN Applied Sciences 2021 Volue 3, Article 884

The use of porous 3D scaffolds for the repair of bone nonunion and osteoporotic bone is currently an area of great interest. Using a combination of thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) and 3D-plotting (3DP), we have generated hierarchical 3DP/TIPS scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). A full factorial design of experiments was conducted, in which the PLGA and nHA compositions were varied between 6‒12% w/v and 10‒40% w/w, respectively, totaling 16 scaffold formulations with an overall porosity ranging between 87%‒93%. These formulations included an optimal scaffold design identified in our previous study. The internal structures of the scaffolds…

Versatile carbon-loaded shellac ink for disposable printed electronics

Scientific Reports 2021 Volue 11, Article 23784

Emerging technologies such as smart packaging are shifting the requirements on electronic components, notably regarding service life, which counts in days instead of years. As a result, standard materials are often not adapted due to economic, environmental or manufacturing considerations. For instance, the use of metal conductive tracks in disposable electronics is a waste of valuable resources and their accumulation in landfills is an environmental concern. In this work, we report a conductive ink made of carbon particles dispersed in a solution of shellac. This natural and water-insoluble resin works as a binder, favourably replacing petroleum-derived polymers. The carbon particles…

Investigation of the 3D Printability of Covalently Cross-Linked Polypeptide-Based Hydrogels

ACS Omega 2022 Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 7556-7571

The 3D printability of poly(l-lysine-ran–l-alanine) and four-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (P(KA)/4-PEG) hydrogels as 3D biomaterial inks was investigated using two approaches to develop P(KA)/4-PEG into 3D biomaterial inks. Only the “composite microgel” inks were 3D printable. In this approach, P(KA)/4-PEG hydrogels were processed into microparticles and incorporated into a polymer solution to produce a composite microgel paste. Polymer solutions composed of either 4-arm PEG-acrylate (4-PEG-Ac), chitosan (CS), or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were used as the matrix material for the composite paste. The three respective composite microgel inks displayed good 3D printability in terms of extrudability, layer-stacking ability, solidification mechanism, and 3D…

Development of bioinks for 3D printing microporous, sintered calcium phosphate scaffolds

Tissue Engineering Constructs and Cell Substrates 2021 Volume 32, Article number: 94

Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-based bioinks were developed to support direct-ink 3D printing-based manufacturing of macroporous scaffolds. Binding of the gelatin:β-TCP ink compositions was optimized by adding carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to maximize the β-TCP content while maintaining printability. Post-sintering, the gelatin:β-TCP:CMC inks resulted in uniform grain size, uniform shrinkage of the printed structure, and included microporosity within the ceramic. The mechanical properties of the inks improved with increasing β-TCP content. The gelatin:β-TCP:CMC ink (25:75 gelatin:β-TCP and 3% CMC) optimized for mechanical strength was used to 3D print several architectures of macroporous scaffolds by varying the print nozzle tip diameter and pore spacing during…

In vitro characterization of hierarchical 3D scaffolds produced by combining additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2021 Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 454-476

This paper reports on the hybrid process we have used for producing hierarchical scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), analyzes their internal structures via scanning electron microscopy, and presents the results of our in vitro proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for 0 and 21 days. These scaffolds were produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques. Slow cooling at a rate of 1.5 °C/min during the TIPS process was used to enable a uniform temperature throughout the scaffolds, and therefore, a relatively uniform pore size range. We produced ten different…

Employing PEG crosslinkers to optimize cell viability in gel phase bioinks and tailor post printing mechanical properties

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 99, Pages 121-132

The field of 3D bioprinting has rapidly grown, yet the fundamental ability to manipulate material properties has been challenging with current bioink methods. Here, we change bioink properties using our PEG cross-linking (PEGX) bioink method with the objective of optimizing cell viability while retaining control of mechanical properties of the final bioprinted construct. First, we investigate cytocompatible, covalent cross-linking chemistries for bioink synthesis (e.g. Thiol Michael type addition and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction). We demonstrate these reactions are compatible with the bioink method, which results in high cell viability. The PEGX method is then exploited to optimize extruded…

I-Optimal Design of Hierarchical 3D Scaffolds Produced by Combining Additive Manufacturing and Thermally Induced Phase Separation

ACS Apllied Bio Materials 2019 Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 685-696

The limitations in the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic waste products pose a challenge to the development of bioengineered bone of clinically relevant size. This paper reports the design and characterization of hierarchical macro/microporous scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid and nanohydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA). These scaffolds were produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques. Macrochannels with diameters of ∼300 μm, ∼380 μm, and ∼460 μm were generated by embedding porous 3D-plotted polyethylene glycol (PEG) inside PLGA/nHA/1,4-dioxane or PLGA/1,4-dioxane solutions, followed by PEG extraction using deionized (DI) water. We have used an I-optimal design of experiments…

A Multimaterial Bioink Method for 3D Printing Tunable, Cell-Compatible Hydrogels

Advanced Materials 2015 Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1607–1614

A multimaterial bio-ink method using polyethylene glycol crosslinking is presented for expanding the biomaterial palette required for 3D bioprinting of more mimetic and customizable tissue and organ constructs. Lightly crosslinked, soft hydrogels are produced from precursor solutions of various materials and 3D printed. Rheological and biological characterizations are presented, and the promise of this new bio-ink synthesis strategy is discussed.

Hierarchical polymeric scaffolds support the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2015 Volume 26, Issue 116, Pages 116ff

Tissue engineering makes use of the principles of biology and engineering to sustain 3D cell growth and promote tissue repair and/or regeneration. In this study, macro/microporous scaffold architectures have been developed using a hybrid solid freeform fabrication/thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) dissolved in 1,4-dioxane was used to generate a microporous matrix by the TIPS method. The 3D-bioplotting technique was used to fabricate 3D macroporous constructs made of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Embedding the PEG constructs inside the PLGA solution prior to the TIPS process and subsequent extraction of PEG following solvent removal (1,4-dioaxane) resulted in a macro/microporous…