3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (6 results)

Microstructure and properties of additively-manufactured WC-Co microlattices and WC-Cu composites

Acta Materialia 2021 Volume 221, Article 117420

Liquid ink-printing followed by sintering is used to fabricate WC-Co microlattices and cutting tools. The microstructure of WC-xCo (x=0.5-20 wt.%) is studied for a range of carbide-to-binder ratios and for various sintering temperatures. For 0.5≤Co≤5 wt.%, struts in microlattices exhibit residual porosity due to incomplete densification, even at the highest sintering temperature of 1650 °C. With 10 wt.% Co, fully dense lattice struts are achieved after sintering at 1450 °C for 1 h. For 1450-1650 °C sintering temperatures, the hardness of WC-xCo struts initially increases (due to increasing densification with increased Co) and then gradually decreases (due to an increase…

Microstructure evolution during reduction and sintering of 3D-extrusion-printed Bi2O3+TeO2 inks to form Bi2Te3

Acta Materialia 2021 Volume 221, Article 117422

As an alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing, 3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing is studied here for thermoelectric Bi2Te3, starting from Bi2O3+TeO2 oxide precursor powders. In situ synchrotron XRD in flowing H2 at elevated temperatures reveals the complex phase evolution upon co-reduction leading to the formation of Bi2Te3, Bi2TeO5 and Bi2TeO2. Sintering trials performed using optimal temperatures identified by in situ XRD show that low heating rates and extensive holding times are required to achieve full co-reduction to pure Bi2Te3. The formation of liquid Bi at the temperatures required for oxide reduction leads to local transient-liquid-phase sintering, creating a coarse-grained porous structure.…

Gas Phase Alloying and Sintering Kinetics of 3D Printed Ni-Based Structures

Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati 2021
S. Khodabakhsh

Porous materials, including foams and lattice structures, are used in many applications such as biomedical implants, heat exchangers, catalysts, and batteries due to their light weight, high surface area and energy absorption properties. Lattice structures, specifically, are of great interest since their properties can be tailored by employing various design methodologies (e.g., topology optimization). On the other hand, Ni-based superalloys are used in many applications where high-temperature and oxidation/corrosion resistance are important such as in gas turbine components. The advantageous properties of these Ni-Cr-Al-based alloys with the geometry and tailored mechanical properties of lattice structures can be combined through a…

Complex-shaped, finely-featured ZrC/W composites via shape-preserving reactive melt infiltration of porous WC structures fabricated by 3D ink extrusion

Additive Manufacturing Letters 2021 Volume 1, Article 100018

Complex-shaped, finely-featured, ultra-high-melting ZrC/W composite structures were produced by coupling, for the first time, three-dimensional (3D) ink-extrusion printing with shape/size-preserving reactive melt infiltration (the Displacive Compensation of Porosity, DCP, process). Inks containing sub-micron WC powders were printed at ambient temperature into either fine-scale structures (sub-millimeter filaments) or into a larger-scale, finely-featured 3D structure (a centimeter-scale nozzle with a sub-millimeter-thick wall). After organic binder removal, the printed structures were sintered at 1650 °C for 1 h to achieve a porosity of 50%. The porous, rigid WC structures then underwent ambient pressure infiltration and reaction with Zr-Cu liquid at up to 1350…

SnO2-Ag composites with high thermal cycling stability created by Ag infiltration of 3D ink-extruded SnO2 microlattices

Applied Materials Today 2020 Volume 21, Article 100794

SnO2-Ag composites with designed architectures with sub-millimeter feature sizes can provide enhanced functionality in electrical applications. SnO2-Ag composites consisting of a ceramic SnO2 micro-lattice filled with metallic Ag are created via a hybrid additive manufacturing method. The multistep process includes: (i) 3D extrusion printing of 0/90° cross-ply micro-lattices from SnO2-7%CuO nanoparticle-loaded ink; (ii) thermal treatment in air to burn the binders and sinter struts of the SnO2 micro-lattice to ~94% relative density; (iii) Ag melt infiltration of channels of sintered micro-lattices. Densification of the SnO2 struts during air-sintering is accelerated by CuO liquid phase forming at 1100°C. During the subsequent…

3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing of CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy micro-lattices

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article number: 904

Additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys combines the mechanical properties of this novel family of alloys with the geometrical freedom and complexity required by modern designs. Here, a non-beam approach to additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys is developed based on 3D extrusion of inks containing a blend of oxide nanopowders (Co3O4 + Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + NiO), followed by co-reduction to metals, inter-diffusion and sintering to near-full density CoCrFeNi in H2. A complex phase evolution path is observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction in extruded filaments when the oxide phases undergo reduction and the resulting metals inter-diffuse, ultimately forming face-centered-cubic equiatomic CoCrFeNi alloy. Linked to the phase evolution…