3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers by A. E. Jakus (25 results)

Three-Dimensional Printing of Cytocompatible, Thermally Conductive Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanocomposites

Nano Letters 2018 Volume 18, Issue 6, 3488-3493

Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a thermally conductive yet electrically insulating two-dimensional layered nanomaterial that has attracted significant attention as a dielectric for high-performance electronics in addition to playing a central role in thermal management applications. Here, we report a high-content hBN-polymer nanocomposite ink, which can be 3D printed to form mechanically robust, self-supporting constructs. In particular, hBN is dispersed in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and 3D printed at room temperature through an extrusion process to form complex architectures. These constructs can be 3D printed with a composition of up to 60% vol hBN (solids content) while maintaining high mechanical flexibility and…

Preclinical Safety of a 3D-Printed Hydroxyapatite-Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffold for Spinal Fusion

Spine 2022 Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 82-89

Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the host inflammatory response of our previously described hyperelastic, 3D-printed (3DP) hydroxyapatite (HA)-demineralized bone matrix (DBM) composite scaffold to the response elicited with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a preclinical rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model. Summary of Background Data. Our group previously found that this 3D-printed HA-DBM composite material shows promise as a bone graft substitute in a preclinical rodent model, but its safety profile had yet to be assessed. Methods. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral posterolateral intertransverse lumbar spinal fusion using with the following…

In situ loading and x-ray diffraction quantification of strains in hydroxyapatite particles within a 3D printed scaffold

Materialia 2021 Volume 18, Article 101174

A 3D printed scaffold consisting of a composite with very high volume fraction of particulate hydroxyapatite (hAp, 74 vol.%) and small volume fraction of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (26 vol.%) was loaded in compression, and the internal strains in the hAp phase were measured by high-energy x-ray diffraction. Diffraction patterns were recorded at multiple positions in the scaffold at cross-head displacements of 0, -0.52 and -0.62 mm (2.0 mm total scaffold height). The 00.2 and 21.0 hAp strains never exceeded 2 × 10−4, and most positions showed strains ≤ 1 × 10−4, which was the magnitude of the experimental uncertainty.

High-temperature mechanical properties of γ/γ′ Co–Ni–W–Al superalloy microlattices

Scripta Materialia 2020 Volume 188, Pages 146-150

Cobalt-based superalloy microlattices were created via (i) three-dimensional-extrusion printing of inks containing a suspension of Co-, Ni- and W-oxide particles, (ii) H2-reduction of the oxides and sintering to a homogenous Co-Ni-W alloy, (iii) Al pack-cementation to deposit Al on the microlattice struts, followed by Al-homogenization. The resulting Co-(18–20)Ni-(5–6)W-(10–13)Al (at.%) microlattices, with 27–30% relative density and 350 μm diameter struts, display a peak in yield strength at 750°C, consistent with their γ/γ′ aged microstructure. Oxidation resistance is strongly improved compared to Al-free printed Co-Ni-W lattices, via the formation of an Al2O3 surface layer. However, the resulting Al depletion within the struts…

Osteoinductivity and biomechanical assessment of a 3D printed demineralized bone matrix-ceramic composite in a rat spine fusion model

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 127, Pages 146-158

We recently developed a recombinant growth factor-free bone regenerative scaffold composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic particles and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles (HA-DBM). Here, we performed the first pre-clinical comparative evaluation of HA-DBM relative to the industry standard and established positive control, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model (PLF). Female Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral L4-L5 PLF with implantation of the HA-DBM scaffold or rhBMP-2. Fusion was evaluated using radiography and blinded manual palpation, while biomechanical testing quantified the segmental flexion-extension range-of-motion (ROM) and stiffness of the fused segments at 8-weeks postoperatively.…

Inclusion of a 3D-printed Hyperelastic Bone mesh improves mechanical and osteogenic performance of a mineralized collagen scaffold

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 121, Pages 224–236

Regenerative repair of craniomaxillofacial bone injuries is challenging due to both the large size and irregular shape of many defects. Mineralized collagen scaffolds have previously been shown to be a promising biomaterial implant to accelerate craniofacial bone regeneration in vivo. Here we describe inclusion of a 3D-printed polymer or ceramic-based mesh into a mineralized collagen scaffold to improve mechanical and biological activity. Mineralized collagen scaffolds were reinforced with 3D-printed Fluffy-PLG (ultraporous polylactide-co-glycolide co-polymer) or Hyperelastic Bone (90wt% calcium phosphate in PLG) meshes. We show degradation byproducts and acidic release from the printed structures have limited negative impact on the viability…

Influence of Geometry and Architecture on the In Vivo Success of 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering Part A 2021 Volume 27, Issue 1-2, Pages 26-36

We previously developed a recombinant growth factor-free, three-dimensional (3D)-printed material comprising hydroxyapatite (HA) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) for bone regeneration. This material has demonstrated the capacity to promote re-mineralization of the DBM particles within the scaffold struts and shows potential to promote successful spine fusion. Here, we investigate the role of geometry and architecture in osteointegration, vascularization, and facilitation of spine fusion in a preclinical model. Inks containing HA and DBM particles in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were 3D-printed into scaffolds with varying relative strut angles (90° vs. 45° advancing angle), macropore size (0 μm vs. 500 μm vs. 1000 μm), and strut…

3D-Printed Ceramic-Demineralized Bone Matrix Hyperelastic Bone Composite Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering: Part A 2020 Volume: 26 Issue 3-4, Pages 157-166

Although numerous spinal biologics are commercially available, a cost-effective and safe bone graft substitute material for spine fusion has yet to be proven. In this study, “3D-Paints” containing varying volumetric ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were three-dimensional (3D) printed into scaffolds to promote osteointegration in rats, with an end goal of spine fusion without the need for recombinant growth factor. Spine fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, and osteointegration and de novo bone formation within scaffold struts were evaluated by laboratory and synchrotron microcomputed tomography and histology. The 3:1 HA:DBM composite…

Precision lattice parameter determination from transmission diffraction of thick specimens with irregular cross sections

Journal of Applield Crystallography 2019 Volume 52, Pages 40-46

Accurate determination of lattice parameters from X-ray diffraction requires that the diffraction angles be measured very precisely, and significant errors result if the sample–detector separation differs from that assumed. Transmission diffraction from bones, which have a complex cross section and must be left intact, is a situation where this separation is difficult to measure and it may differ from position to position across the specimen. This article describes a method for eliminating the effect of variable sample cross section. Diffraction patterns for each position on the specimen are collected before and after 180° rotation about an axis normal to the…

3D extruded composite thermoelectric threads for flexible energy harvesting

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article 5590

Whereas the rigid nature of standard thermoelectrics limits their use, flexible thermoelectric platforms can find much broader applications, for example, in low-power, wearable energy harvesting for internet-of-things applications. Here we realize continuous, flexible thermoelectric threads via a rapid extrusion of 3D-printable composite inks (Bi2Te3 n- or p-type micrograins within a non-conducting polymer as a binder) followed by compression through a roller-pair, and we demonstrate their applications in flexible, low-power energy harvesting. The thermoelectric power factors of these threads are enhanced up to 7 orders-of-magnitude after lateral compression, principally due to improved conductivity resulting from reduced void volume fraction and partial…

Voltaglue Bioadhesives Energized with Interdigitated 3D‐Graphene Electrodes

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2018 Volume 7, Issue 21, Article 1800538

Soft tissue fixation of implant and bioelectrodes relies on mechanical means (e.g., sutures, staples, and screws), with associated complications of tissue perforation, scarring, and interfacial stress concentrations. Adhesive bioelectrodes address these shortcomings with voltage cured carbene‐based bioadhesives, locally energized through graphene interdigitated electrodes. Electrorheometry and adhesion structure activity relationships are explored with respect to voltage and electrolyte on bioelectrodes synthesized from graphene 3D‐printed onto resorbable polyester substrates. Adhesive leachates effects on in vitro metabolism and human‐derived platelet‐rich plasma response serves to qualitatively assess biological response. The voltage activated bioadhesives are found to have gelation times of 60 s or less…

Vascularization of Natural and Synthetic Bone Scaffolds

Cell transplantation 2018 Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1269–1280

Vascularization of engineered bone tissue is critical for ensuring its survival after implantation. In vitro pre-vascularization of bone grafts with endothelial cells is a promising strategy to improve implant survival. In this study, we pre-cultured human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs) on bone scaffolds for 3 weeks followed by seeding of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which produced a desirable environment for microvasculature formation. The sequential cell-seeding protocol was successfully applied to both natural (decellularized native bone, or DB) and synthetic (3D-printed Hyperelastic “Bone” scaffolds, or HB) scaffolds, demonstrating a comprehensive platform for developing natural and synthetic-based in vitro vascularized…

Microstructure and Processing of 3D Printed Tungsten Microlattices and Infiltrated W–Cu Composites

Advanced Engineering Materials 2018 Volume 20, Article 1800354

ungsten is of industrial relevance due its outstanding intrinsic properties (e.g., highest melting‐point of all elements) and therefore difficult to 3D‐print by conventional methods. Here, tungsten micro‐lattices are produced by room‐temperature extrusion‐based 3D‐printing of an ink comprising WO3–0.5%NiO submicron powders, followed by H2‐reduction and Ni‐activated sintering. The green bodies underwent isotropic linear shrinkage of ≈50% during the thermal treatment resulting in micro‐lattices, with overall 35–60% open‐porosity, consisting of 95–100% dense W–0.5%Ni struts having ≈80–300 μm diameter. Ball‐milling the powders and inks reduced the sintering temperature needed to achieve full densification from 1400 to 1200 °C and enabled the ink to be extruded…

3D-printing porosity: A new approach to creating elevated porosity materials and structures

Acta Biomaterialia 2018 Volume 72, Pages 94-109

We introduce a new process that enables the ability to 3D-print high porosity materials and structures by combining the newly introduced 3D-Painting process with traditional salt-leaching. The synthesis and resulting properties of three 3D-printable inks comprised of varying volume ratios (25:75, 50:50, 70:30) of CuSO4 salt and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), as well as their as-printed and salt-leached counterparts, are discussed. The resulting materials are comprised entirely of PLGA (F-PLGA), but exhibit porosities proportional to the original CuSO4 content. The three distinct F-PLGA materials exhibit average porosities of 66.6–94.4%, elastic moduli of 112.6-2.7 MPa, and absorbency of 195.7–742.2%. Studies with adult human mesenchymal…

Sintering of micro-trusses created by extrusion-3D-printing of lunar regolith inks

Acta Astronautica 2018 Volume 143, Pages 1-8

The development of in situ fabrication methods for the infrastructure required to support human life on the Moon is necessary due to the prohibitive cost of transporting large quantities of materials from the Earth. Cellular structures, consisting of a regular network (truss) of micro-struts with ∼500 μm diameters, suitable for bricks, blocks, panels, and other load-bearing structural elements for habitats and other infrastructure are created by direct-extrusion 3D-printing of liquid inks containing JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant powders, followed by sintering. The effects of sintering time, temperature, and atmosphere (air or hydrogen) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and magnetic properties of…

“Tissue Papers” from Organ-Specific Decellularized Extracellular Matrices

Advanced Functional Materials 2017 Volume 27, Article 1700992

Using an innovative, tissue-independent approach to decellularized tissue processing and biomaterial fabrication, the development of a series of “tissue papers” derived from native porcine tissues/organs (heart, kidney, liver, muscle), native bovine tissue/organ (ovary and uterus), and purified bovine Achilles tendon collagen as a control from decellularized extracellular matrix particle ink suspensions cast into molds is described. Each tissue paper type has distinct microstructural characteristics as well as physical and mechanical properties, is capable of absorbing up to 300% of its own weight in liquid, and remains mechanically robust (E = 1–18 MPa) when hydrated; permitting it to be cut, rolled,…

Robust and Elastic Lunar and Martian Structures from 3D-Printed Regolith Inks

Scientific Reports 2017 Volume 7, Article number: 44931

Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume). Both LRS and MRS inks exhibit similar rheological and 3D-printing characteristics,…

Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

Advanced Engineering Materials 2016 Volume 19, Issue 11, Article 1600365

Inks comprised of metallic Fe or Ni powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered to form metallic cellular structures. Similar structures are created from Fe2O3 and NiO particle-based inks, with an additional hydrogen reduction step before sintering. All sintered structures exhibit 92–98% relative density within their struts, with neither cracking nor visible warping despite extensive volumetric shrinkage (≈70–80%) associated with reduction (for oxide powders) and sintering (for both metal and oxide powders). The cellular architectures, with overall relative densities of 32–49%, exhibit low stiffness (1–6 GPa, due to the particular architecture used), high…

Hyperelastic “bone”: A highly versatile, growth factor–free, osteoregenerative, scalable, and surgically friendly biomaterial

Science Translational Medicine 2016 Volume 8, Issue 358, Pages 358ra127

Despite substantial attention given to the development of osteoregenerative biomaterials, severe deficiencies remain in current products. These limitations include an inability to adequately, rapidly, and reproducibly regenerate new bone; high costs and limited manufacturing capacity; and lack of surgical ease of handling. To address these shortcomings, we generated a new, synthetic osteoregenerative biomaterial, hyperelastic “bone” (HB). HB, which is composed of 90 weight % (wt %) hydroxyapatite and 10 wt % polycaprolactone or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), could be rapidly three-dimensionally (3D) printed (up to 275 cm3/hour) from room temperature extruded liquid inks. The resulting 3D-printed HB exhibited elastic mechanical properties (~32…

Diffraction tomography and Rietveld refinement of a hydroxyapatite bone phantom

Journal of Applied Crystallography 2016 Volume 49, Pages 103-109

A model sample consisting of two different hydroxyapatite (hAp) powders was used as a bone phantom to investigate the extent to which X-ray diffraction tomography could map differences in hAp lattice constants and crystallite size. The diffraction data were collected at beamline 1-ID, the Advanced Photon Source, using monochromatic 65 keV X-radiation, a 25 × 25 µm pinhole beam and translation/rotation data collection. The diffraction pattern was reconstructed for each volume element (voxel) in the sample, and Rietveld refinement was used to determine the hAp lattice constants. The crystallite size for each voxel was also determined from the 00.2 hAp…

Hydroxyapatite PLLA

Multi‐and mixed 3D‐printing of graphene‐hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2016 Volume 105, Issue 1, Pages 274–283

With the emergence of 3D-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (Hyperelastic Bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-Graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multi-material constructs, but that composite…

Three Dimensional Printing of High-Content Graphene Scaffolds for Electronic and Biomedical Applications

ACS Nano 2015 Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 4636–4648

The exceptional properties of graphene enable applications in electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and structural composites. Here we demonstrate a 3D printable graphene (3DG) composite consisting of majority graphene and minority polylactide-co-glycolide, a biocompatible elastomer, 3D-printed from a liquid ink. This ink can be utilized under ambient conditions via extrusion-based 3D printing to create graphene structures with features as small as 100 μm composed of as few as two layers (10 cm thick object). The resulting 3DG material is mechanically robust and flexible while retaining electrical conductivities greater than 800 S/m, an order of magnitude increase over previously reported 3D-printed carbon…

A Multimaterial Bioink Method for 3D Printing Tunable, Cell-Compatible Hydrogels

Advanced Materials 2015 Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1607–1614

A multimaterial bio-ink method using polyethylene glycol crosslinking is presented for expanding the biomaterial palette required for 3D bioprinting of more mimetic and customizable tissue and organ constructs. Lightly crosslinked, soft hydrogels are produced from precursor solutions of various materials and 3D printed. Rheological and biological characterizations are presented, and the promise of this new bio-ink synthesis strategy is discussed.

Metallic Architectures from 3D‐Printed Powder‐Based Liquid Inks

Advanced Functional Materials 2015 Volume 25, Issue 45, Pages 6985–6995

A new method for complex metallic architecture fabrication is presented, through synthesis and 3D-printing of a new class of 3D-inks into green-body structures followed by thermochemical transformation into sintered metallic counterparts. Small and large volumes of metal-oxide, metal, and metal compound 3D-printable inks are synthesized through simple mixing of solvent, powder, and the biomedical elastomer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). These inks can be 3D-printed under ambient conditions via simple extrusion at speeds upwards of 150 mm s–1 into millimeter- and centimeter-scale thin, thick, high aspect ratio, hollow and enclosed, and multi-material architectures. The resulting 3D-printed green-bodies can be handled immediately, are…

In situ forming collagen–hyaluronic acid membrane structures: mechanism of self-assembly and applications in regenerative medicine

Acta Biomaterialia 2013 Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 5153–5161

Bioactive, in situ forming materials have the potential to complement minimally invasive surgical procedures and enhance tissue healing. For such biomaterials to be adopted in the clinic, they must be cost-effective, easily handled by the surgeon and have a history of biocompatibility. To this end, we report a novel and facile self-assembling strategy to create membranes and encapsulating structures using collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA). Unlike membranes built by layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged biomolecules, the collagen–HA membranes described here form a diffusion barrier upon electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged biomolecules, which is further driven by osmotic pressure imbalances.…